The Resurrection

Our Only Hope Of Life After Death


"The Wages Of Sin Is Death"


"The Wages Of Sin Is Eternal

Life With Torment In Hell"


An Immortal Soul And The Doctrine Of Hell

Is There A Soul In You That Will Live After You Are Dead?


Updated 7/30/2021

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The Resurrection, Our Only Hope Of Life After Death

William Robert West


 Table of Contents

Chapter 1: “The nature of man–what is man?”

Chapter 2: “Life or Death”

Chapter 3: “The great doctrines of the Bible”

Chapter 4: “From where came Hell, from man or God?”

1. Unquenchable fire, weeping, gnashing of teeth

2. Old Testament history of Gehanna

3. Gehenna used by Christ on four occasions

4. The vanishing Hell

5. Thirty-one plus version of Hell

Three Roman Catholic versions of Hell

Nineteen plus Protestant versions of Hell

Nine other versions of Hell

Chapter 5: Sheol, Hades, and Tartarus

Chapter 6: The thirty-one Hell passages

Chapter 7: A strange and unexplainable silence of the Old Testament on punishment and life after death, life, death, torment, destruction, destroy, perish, die, and end

Chapter 8: Figurative language, metaphors, and symbolical passage

Part one, the rich man

Part two, the symbolic pictures in Revelation

Part three, the forever and ever of the King James Version

Chapter 9: Universalist, The "age lasting" Hell

Chapter 10: The results of attributing evil Pagan teachings to God

Chapter 11: Historical proof of the changing of the teaching of the Bible

Chapter 12: Israel’s destruction, scripture about the destruction of Israel that are misapplied to Hell

1. Israel’s weeping, gnashing of teeth

2. Outer darkness

3. Matthew 24, Preterits Eschatology, Realized Eschatology

4. A D 70 Doctrine

5. The day of the Lord

6. 2 Peter 3   

Chapter 13: After the Resurrection

The fate of those who not are in Christ

The fate of those who are in Christ

Appendix one

All 13 chapters on one site at  



     What do you believe about souls? There are many very different doctrines taught in the world today concerning souls that are believed to be in all humans. By most a soul is believed to be something that is wholly apart from the person that they believe a soul to be in; most believe that a soul will exist forever without the person; it will never be dead, therefore, a soul cannot be resurrected from the dead; most believe it will always live either in Heaven or Hell even if there is no resurrection.

      A deathless soul leaving a person at the death of the person makes it impossible for Christ to have give His life to save that soul from death; if a soul had immortality it would already have life and could never not have life; all Christ could do is give it a reward or punish it.


     (1). At the death of a saved person a bodiless deathless soul that had been in that person will fly immediately to Heaven to the very presents of Jesus and God, and souls that are now in Heaven are now looking down on loved ones of the dead persons a souls had been in.

     (2). Many believe at the death of a lost person, a soul that had been in that person will immediately be carried to Hell where that soul will forever be alive, suffering and screaming while it is being eternally tormented by God the endless tormenter because of the sins of the dead person that a soul had been in with no hope that God will ever stop tormenting that soul.

     (3). In the Abraham’s bosom version souls that had been in the saved will go immediately at the death of the person to be rewarded in Abraham’s bosom, the good side of hades, unto the coming of Christ while souls that had been in the lost are tormented in the bad side of hades unto the coming of Christ; after the judgment souls that had been in the lost persons that were being tormented in hades will then be moved from hades to Hell, and they will be endlessly tormented by God in an endless burning Hell.

     (4). A view of a soul now believed by some Protestants, called Rephaim, is that after the death of the person, a soul leaves the person and it is a shadowy something that has no substance, that a soul is nothing more than mental thoughts without any kind of substance or body.

     (5). Catholics believe that at death most souls that were in dead Roman Catholics goes immediately to Purgatory where souls will suffer unto souls have suffered enough to pay for the sins of the persons that souls had been in, then these souls will be saved by their own suffering, or saved by money given by others to get the souls out Purgatory.

     (6). Spiritualism, After the death of the person, a spirit that had been in a person becomes a ghost that sometimes haunts the house of the person it had been in, it is a ghostly spook that can sometimes be seen at night among graves and tombstones in a cemetery. According to Spiritualism, some people can and do call them back, but usually only after they are paid to do the calling; Spiritualist say these ghosts or spooks roam the earth and are seen by people, and even live in the house with people; that ghosts that had left the persons they were dwelling in can come back, and these ghosts can do both good and evil to living persons that still have ghosts (souls) dwelling in them. Many who do not think of themselves as being a Spiritualist and even deny that they are a Spiritualist believe much of the Spiritualist belief; most funerals that I have attended the preacher has a soul that had been dwelling in the dead person dwelling in Heaven, and that soul was looking down on the funeral of the dead person it had been freed from; have you ever been to a funeral where the preacher said a soul that had been in the dead person was alive in Hell and looking up from Hell at the dead person it had been in? 

     (7). The teaching of souls going to Heaven or Hell at death without a resurrection is from Greek philosophy, that immortal, deathless souls are imprisoned in a person and freed at the death of the person; in no way can it be call Christian; it is a complete denial of Christianly. If this Dark Age Pagan Roman Catholic teaching that was brought into the church from Greek paganism were true, the second coming of Christ, the Resurrection of the dead, and the Judgment would all be useless and meaningless. The whole person, not a soul that had been in a person, sleeps from death unto the resurrection, the whole person is resurrected and judged, the person is given endless life, or endless death.

     (8). There are many other beliefs about what a soul is and what a soul can and cannot do, far too many to list here.

     Two of the views that are commonly believed about what will happen to souls that leave mankind after their death are the subject of this book.

     VIEW ONEYou, the person you now are, will put on immortality at the resurrection, and it is you, not just some immaterial something that many believe is in you that will live forever in Heaven; we, not immaterial souls, are now in the image of Adam; we, not an immaterial soul, will have the image of Christ after the resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:49). “The wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23), and after the resurrection and judgment, lost persons, not souls, will die “the second death;” the lost do not now have immortality and never will be immortal; those who do not belong to Christ will forever be destroyed by “the second death” after their judgment. Only saved persons will be changed from mortal persons to immortal persons at the resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:42-46); it will be you, the person, that will be immortal and live in the place Christ has gone to prepare for you, not a place for whatever the something is that anyone believes a soul to be.

      VIEW TWO is the belief that there is a deathless “soul” in all persons. W. E. Vine says a soul has no substance (“Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary Of Old And New Testament Words,” page 588), and Robert A. Morey says, that after the death of the body a soul is nothing but “mental thoughts (“Death And The Afterlife,” page 79). According to John Calvin the dualistic view that is believed by many Protestants, “The soul is an incorporeal substance…set in the body it dwells there as in a house” (Institutes 1, xv, 2, 6). According to those that believe as Vine, Calvin, Morey, many Protestants, and most Roman Catholics, an immaterial something that had been in a person that is nothing but “mental thoughts” is all that will be in Heaven or Hell; the person (you) will be gone and there will be nothing but a soul that had been in you that is nothing but thoughts, then all of the “you” that you now know anything about will be forever be gone when you die. Most that believe all persons are born with an immortal “soul” that is dwelling in them have only a vague unclear understanding, or even no idea of what they believe this unknown immaterial something they believe to be in them really is, but “it” (not themselves) is what they believe must be saved, and only whatever “it” is will be in Heaven if they save “it,” or in Hell if they do not save “it.” The belief that everyone has an immaterial something in them and this something, whatever this nothing but “mental thoughts” could be, it will live forever and it cannot die makes it not possible for death to be “the wages of sin” (Romans 6:23); if a person has something in them that is deathless; this something would not be subject to death, not subject to “the wages of sin,” and this deathless nothing could never be destroyed; that this it, whatever a soul is believed to be, it is believed to have endless life from the birth of the person, and it cannot die when the person it is in dies, it will never die, will never be dead; therefore, it cannot be resurrected from the dead.


     (1). That there is a "soul" in each person that cannot ever die or be destroyed, but most of these immaterial nothing but mental thoughts beings will forever be tormented by God for the sins of the persons they had been in. I know of no one that believes there is a soul that is in a person that knows what a soul is. They tell me what a soul is not, but not what they believe a soul to be. In the many books I have read, the nearest anyone has came is to say that after a soul departs from the person it had been in is Vine’s definitions that a soul is nothing but thoughts, and a soul dose not have any kind of substance or body.

     (2). Universalism, believe that in all mankind there is a "soul" in them that cannot ever die or be destroyed; everyone has this something in them that will live forever without the dead person it had been in. If it, an immaterial bodiless beings is not saved by the person it is in during the lifetime of the person, then it will be saved after the death of the person it had been in.

     (3). Protestant Premillennialists. Many Protestant Premillennialists believe the lost will be totally destroyed, but there are three, probably more, Premillennial views that are common in Protestant churches on how or where the lost will be destroyed.

* A common Protestant Premillennialists belief is that the complete destruction of the lost will be on this earth and the saved will forever live on this earth; no person will ever be in Heaven. Many Premillennialists that are mixed in many Protestant churches believe the Valley of Gehenna will be restored at the second coming of Christ and the lost will literally be burned to ashes in it.

* Some Protestant Premillennialists believe that the saved will be with Christ in Heaven, not on earth after the thousand years, “the second death” will be the end of the lost, but their death will not be by literally being burned to ashes on this earth in the restored Valley of Gehenna.

* Some Protestant Premillennialists believe “the wages of sin” will be an endless life with endless torment by God for souls that cannot die, which puts them in the camp of those that believe that souls now have endless life and souls will be endlessly tormented by God because these souls had been in unsaved persons, they do not believe death is “the wages of sin.”

     If there were a soul in us that is now immortal and it can never die, or never be dead, how could there be a resurrection of the undead souls? Do you believe in the resurrection of the dead? If yes, what do you believe will be resurrected; will you be raised from the dead, or do you believe as many that only a soul that can never be dead, and that this deathless soul is the only thing that will be raised from the dead even though it is not dead, and after you are dead it is the only thing that will ever have life? When I first begin this study I was surprised and made to tremble at how few really believed in the resurrection, and how many there are that do not really know what they believe about it. Many believe some deathless something that they believe to be in themselves will instantly be translated from this world to Heaven or Hell at the death of the person a soul had been in, (1) but without that soul ever being dead, (2) without a resurrection, (3) before the resurrection, (4) before the Judgment Day, (5) and before the second coming of Christ, but when they are asked what is the reason for the resurrection many not only do not know, but most have never really thought about it. Death is looked at as being a doorway to life in another form, that death is not really death, and there is nowhere in their thoughts or in their faith for a resurrection for their man made theology says no soul is ever dead. The resurrection has been removed from the faith of many by today's theology that says it is only some immortal something that is believed to be in a person that will go to Heaven at the moment of the death of the person. But is there any life after death before the second coming of Christ, before the resurrection of the dead? Paul said life after death will be only at the resurrection when, "This mortal must put on immortality” (1 Corinthians 15:53), but if there is a soul that is now immortal in us, then what is it that is now mortal that will put on immortality at the resurrection? It is the mortal person (you), not a soul that will be raised from the dead; the mortal person (you) will put on immortality at the resurrection; it will be YOU, the mortal YOU changed to an immortal YOU that will be in Heaven.



     Together soul and spirit are used about 1,600 times in the Bible, but not one time is immortal ever used in the same verse with soul or spirit; “immortal soul,” or an “immortal spirit,” “deathless or never dying soul or a never dying spirit” are not in the Bible, not even in the King James Version. Neither immortal nor immortality is not in the Old Testament; the promise of immortality is given to no one. In the New Testament, immortal is used only one time, immortality is used five times, all six by Paul. What does he say?

*  Now unto the King eternal, immortal" (1 Timothy 1:17).

*  Only God has immortality (1 Timothy 6:16).

*  Christ "abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel" (2 Timothy 1:10).

*  "To them (Christians persons, not souls) for glory and honor and immortality" (Romans 2:7).

*  "This MORTAL must put on immortality" (1 Corinthians 15:53) this mortal person will be changed to an immortal person at the resurrection, not this already immortal soul will put on immortality at the resurrection.

*  "This MORTAL shall have put on immortality" (1 Corinthians 15:54). After the resurrection this mortal person shall have put on immortality, not this soul that many believe it is already immortal shall have put on more immortality.

     Why are we to "seek for immortality" if something in us is already immortal? Why will we "put on immortality" if only the something that is in us that will ever be immortal has been immortal from our birth, or as most of the religions of the world believe–before our birth? The fact that a person must "seek for...immortality," (Romans 2:7) and immortality must be "put on" (1 Corinthians 15:53) at the resurrection is conclusive proof that a person does not now have immortality, nor does a person have some immaterial, immortal something in them that is now immortal and whatever “it” is “it” cannot die. Romans 2:7 and 1 Corinthians 15:53 teaches that no part of a person now possess immortality. Not one passage in the Bible says anyone is now immortal. The immortal soul man made theology is from pagan philosophy and was brought into the church by Roman Catholicism in the Dark Age. If all have a deathless soul as most of the worlds religions, most Greek and oriental religions of the ancient world religions believe, and we are told that this deathless soul is the only thing that will ever be immortal, and it is already immortal, the resurrection is made to be useless. The question is, resurrection or immortality? Will YOU be saved from death, or is there a deathless soul in you that cannot be dead, and it cannot be resurrected from the dead, and only that soul, not you, will live in Heaven; or will it be YOU that will be in Heaven? Do you want “YOU” to live forever, or whatever “IT” is to live forever?



What Is Man?

     What is a man? Are all persons born with immortal souls in them, or do the saved persons put on immortality at the resurrection? Is a person a three part being, an animal body with both a soul and a spirit that one or both will live after the person is dead? This is one of the most important questions of all time. It has more influence on our conception of our nature, our view of life in this world, and our view of life after death than any other question.

Soul in the Old Testament is translated from nehphesh

     Strong’s Hebrew word #5315–“a breathing creature.” A study of the way nehphesh is translated in the King James Version, and how other translations differ greatly from the King James reveals facts that show there are many differences in the belief about what a soul is; facts that many will find upsetting. The Hebrew word “nehphesh” is used in the Old Testament about 870 times and is translated soul only about 473 times in the King James Version, but in the New International Version (2011 updated version) nehphesh is translated soul it only 72 out of about 870 times.

     1. Of the 870 times Nehphesh is in the Bible, in the New International Version nehphesh is translated soul only 72 times; it is translated something other than soul 798 times.

     2. Of the 473 times nehphesh is translated “soul” in the King James Version; “soul” was taken out of the New International Version 401 times.

     Nehphesh is translated in the King James Version into about 40 words; this one Hebrew word is translated (or mistranslated) changed into nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. Of 870 times nehphesh is used in the Hebrew this one word was changed into many words by the translators of many versions, changed as they chose to, and all choosing many times to translate the same word difference, even when this word is used two or more times in the same sentence, the same Hebrew word is translated into two English words in the same sentence with the two words that definitely are nothing alike. By today’s meaning of “soul” and “life,” the two words means two completely difference things, “soul” and “life” are not synonymous, they are not even close to being the same thing, but they are both repeatedly translated from the same Hebrew word.



     (1). TRANSALTED NOUNS, soul about 473 times; Life about 122 times; Person about 26 times; Mind about 15 times; Heart about 15 times.

     (2). CHANGED TO PERSONAL PRONOUNS, the noun, nehphesh is changed by the translators into over 44 different pronouns, – yourselves, themselves, her, me, he, his, himself, and many other pronouns.

     (3). MANY OTHERS CHANGES, changed about 200 times, (1) a noun is changed to many verbs, (2) changed to many adjectives, (3) changed by the translators to many adverbs, etc. (4) Changed to: man, creature, living being, own, any, living thing, living creatures, lives, the dead, dead body, kills, slays, slay him, mortally, discontented, ghost, breath, will, appetite, hearty desire, desire, pleasure, lust, and deadly, all translated from the same Hebrew word that is a noun.

     Can one word have this many totally difference meaning? One word cannot be a noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.. If it did could anyone know which one was being used? Is evidence that the translators of many translations CHANGED “nehphesh” into whatever they wanted to, and that the translators of the different translations did not agree with each other.

     In all 870 times that nehphesh is used it is always associated with the activity of a living being including dying (both persons dying and animals dying), and it never implies anything about life after the death of the living being. In none of the 870 times that nehphesh is in the Old Testament it is not once an immortal, immaterial, deathless inter something in a person that has no substance (W. E. Vine, Expository Dictionary Of Old And New Testament Words, page 588).

     Souls (nehpheshs) are the living beings (persons, animals, or any living being) that can die, be killed, or is already dead; although this is often hid from the English readers by the way it was translated or mistranslated.




     (1). Genesis 1:20, "THE MOVING CREATURE THAT HAS LIFE(nehpheshs–mortal beings, used referring to animals, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315–“a breathing creature”). American Standard Version–"Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures” (nehpheshs–all mortal beings that breathes, including all animals and mankind).

     If “soul” were an immortal "immaterial, invisible part of man" (W. E. Vine, Expository Dictionary Of Old And New Testament Words), why is this Hebrew word that is translated soul also translated "living creature” when it is speaking of animals in Genesis 1:21; 1:24; 2:19; 9:10; 9:12; 9:15; 9:16 when the same Hebrew word (nehphesh) is changed to "living soul" in Genesis 2:7 when it is speaking of a person? According to those that believe there is an immortal soul in a person, a “living creature” and a “living soul” are two completely difference beings. If this Hebrew word (nehphesh) were an immaterial, immortal living something that is in a person, it would also be an immaterial, immortal living something that is in animals.

     (2). Genesis 1:21, "LIVING CREATURE," living nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to all life in the water, "And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature (nehpheshs–mortal living beings) that moves wherewith the water swarmed.”

     (3). Genesis 1:24, "LIVING CREATURE(living nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to animals, all life on the land), "And God said, Let the earth bring forth living creatures (nehphesh–soul) after their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth." In Genesis 1:21-24 every living thing on earth, whether in the water or on land, every thing that has life is a nehphesh, is a living being.

*   All sea life are nehpheshs, are living beings (not souls). 

*   All land life are nehpheshs, are living beings (not souls).

*   And mankind are nehpheshs, are living beings (not souls).

     None of the three are inherent indestructible immortality beings; none have an immortal deathless “soul” that cannot die dwelling in them.

     (4). Genesis 1:30, "LIFE" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to animals), "And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings); all animals, all sea life, all birds are "living souls."

     All four times that soul (nehphesh) is used in chapter one of Genesis it is used referring to animals Strong’s Hebrew word #5315 “a breathing creature, i.e., animal;” not to a person. Animals were nehpheshs--living beings (souls), before any man existed; why did the translators DELIBERATELY HIDE the fact that it is the same word that they sometimes translated soul?

     *  They translated it living creatures when it is speaking of animals.

     *  They changed it to souls when the same word is speaking of people.

     *  How could the translators possibly know when the same word is speaking of mortal beings, or when it is speaking of immortal souls that are in mortal persons? Just as “up” cannot mean “down,” “Mortal” cannot mean “Immortal.”

     *  Although it is clear that the translators attempted to hide this from their readers, every breathing creature are “souls” (a living being–nehphesh) the same as persons.

     "Then God said, 'Let the waters teem with swarms of living souls

 (nehpheshs–mortal living beings), and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.' And God created the great sea monsters, and every living soul (nehphesh–mortal living beings) that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, 'Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.' And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. Then God said, 'Let the earth bring forth living souls (nehpheshs–mortal living beings) after their kind: cattle and creeping thing and beasts of the earth after their kind'; and it was so...and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life (nehphesh–mortal living beings) I have given every green herb for meat” (Genesis 1:20-30). “Living creatures" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings) is used to describe all living things on earth, people, animals, birds, and fish; not some immortal, immaterial, invisible living something that is in a mortal person that is now eternal. If a person being a soul (nehphesh–a living being) makes that person be either immortal or in the image of God, then it makes animals, birds, and fish have a deathless soul in them.

     HENRY CONSTABLE, A. M., “The Hebrew scholars knows that when Moses, in Genesis I. 20, 29, speaks of the nature of the lower order of animals, and when in Genesis ii, 7, he speaks of the nature of man, the inspired writer used the very same Hebrew terms of both one and the other. Each fish, and fowl, and creeping thing, and beast is called in the Hebrew a nephesh chajah as much as man who was given the rule over them. But this was in its apparent bearing wholly inconsistent with the philosophical ideas of the translators. They considered it dangerous that the similarity of description should appear in the English version, which Moses did not consider it dangerous to exhibit in the Hebrew original. Hence they must guard God’s Word from its supposed dangerous language by translating nephesh chajah very differently in the first chapter of Genesis, where it is applied to the lower creatures, from what they translated it in the second chapter, where it is applied to man…A gross, through unintentional fraud has been committed against the English reader. He is mislead in his searching of the Scriptures He is put on a false scent…OUR ENGLISH TRANSLATORS HAVE SUPPLIED US WITH A COMMENTARY OF THEIR OWN INSTEAD OF A TRANSLATION, A COMMENT WE WILL HERE ADD, UTTERLY ALIEN TO TRUTH. BUT THE RESULT OF THIS MISTRANSLATION IS TO LEAD ASTRAY THE ENGLISH READER WHO TRUSTS IN IT. This is not the only instance, which occurs of the thing in reference to this question. The same Hebrew word is throughout the Old Testament translated according as the Platonic notions of the translator led him to think it ought to be translated. PLATO HAD A CONSIDERABLE HAND IN THE TRANSLATION OF KING JAMES’ BIBLE. The Hebrew word nephesh is translated ‘creature,’ ‘soul’ ‘life’ &c., just as squared with the notions of men who carried Plato’s philosophy into their noble work of the translation of Scripture. We affirm that a grave injury has been done to the English reader, and a gross wrong to God’s word.” “Hades or The Intermediate State of Man,” page 31–32, 1873.

     A. CAMPBELL, “It (soul-nehphesh) is employed in Genesis, first and second chapters, to indicate animal life or a living creature.” Life And Death” in Millennial Harbinger, Vol. 15, pages 529-574, 1844.

    (5). Genesis 2:7, "Man BECAME A LIVING SOUL(nehphesh–a living being, used referring to a person, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315–“a breathing creature”). The first time the King James Version translated nehphesh into "soul," most other translations did not agree with it, not even the New King James Version. "Man became a living being" (Genesis 2:7, New King James Version); “man became a living being” cannot be changed to “man had another living being put in him.” Adam was not “given” a soul, he did not have a soul put in him, Adam become” a soul – Adam became a living being (nehphesh).

1.  Living creatures" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings) (Genesis 1:20).

2.  Living things" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings) (Genesis 1:21).

3.  Living creature" (nehpheshs–a mortal living being) (Genesis 1:24).

4.  In which there is life" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings) (Genesis 1:30).

5.  "Man became a living being(nehphesh–a mortal living being) (Genesis 2:7).

     It was the “man,” Adam the mortal man that became a “living being,” not the mortal “man” that had a deathless never dying “living being” put into the mortal “living Being.” Nothing is said about the creation of two “living being,” a living man, and then the creation of another deathless “living being” that was put in the first mortal “living being.”

     It is obvious that the translators of the King James Version translated according to their preconceived opinion in an attempt to make persons have immortal souls dwelling in them, but to keep animals from also having souls that are dwelling in them; they made a distinction in animals and men, a distinction that dose not exist in the Hebrew Bible, but they changed God’s word to make it say what Plato said, what they believed and wanted it to say.

     Genesis 2:7, Man became,

1.  “A living soul(a nehphesh) (1) King James Version.

2.  "A living being"  (a nehphesh) (1) New King James Version, (2) American Standard Version, (3) New American Standard Version, (4) Revised Standard Version, (5) New Revised Standard Version, (6) New International Version, (7) Amplified Version, (8) New American Bible.

3.  "A living creature"  (a nehphesh) (1) The Revised English Bible, (2) Young's Literal Translation.

4.  "A living person"  (a nehphesh) (1) New Century Version, (2) The Living Bible, (3) New Living Translation.

5.  "Life"  (nehphesh) (1) Contemporary English Version.

     Of these many translations, none would go along with the CHANGES that were made by the translators of the King James Version to add Plato’s immortal soul, not even the New King James Version.

     According to chapter one to three of Genesis man was created a mortal “living being” just as the animals were. “Behold, the MAN…lest HE stretch out HIS hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever, therefore the Lord sent HIM out from the garden of Eden” (Genesis 3:22-23) is speaking of the physical person eating of the tree of life, of the man living forever physically, it says nothing about an immortal something that was dwelling in a mortal person, nothing about Plato’s soul that was believed to be already deathless, was already believed to be immortal, and it would live forever without eating of the tree of life. It was the physical person (Adam) a “living being” (nehphesh) that would have eaten from a physical tree, and the physical person (Adam) that would have physically lived forever. Without the tree of life Adam was not immortal, without the tree of life Adam, a “living being” died. What reason would there have been to keep Adam from eating of the tree of life if Adam was already immortal?



1.  The body. “God formed MAN out of the dust of the earth.”

2.  God “breathed into HIS nostrils the breath of life (nehphesh).” God breathing “the breath of life into the nostrils of the lifeless body give the body life; breathing “the breath of life into the nostrils of the lifeless body did not put a deathless soul into the lifeless body, it was “the breath of life” breathed into Adam that gives life to the body, not life to another “living being” (nehphesh) that does not breath that was put in Adam.

3.  MAN became a living being (nehphesh).” 

     MAN AND ANIMALS ARE BOTH MADE OF THE DUST OF THE EARTH. Both man and animals are a nehphesh, both are a “living being” (nehphesh) both man and animals have “the breath of life.” Neither man or animals became a “living being” (nehphesh) with another “living being” (nehphesh) living in them. There is absolutely nothing about Plato’s immortal, deathless soul in this passage, not one word.

     Job said, “The breath of the Almighty gives ME life (Job 33:4); he did not say, “The breath of the Almighty put a soul in me that give my body life.”

     Paul quoted Genesis 2:7 showing that the “natural body” of Genesis 2:7 that was given to Adam was not the “spiritual body” that will be given only to the saved by Christ at the resurrection. “So also it is written, the first man Adam became a living soul (nehphesh – soul). The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. Howbeit that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; THEN that which is spiritual. The first man is of the earth, earthy, the second man is of heaven. As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy, and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. As WE have born the image of the earthly, WE shall also bear the image of the heavenly” (1 Corinthians 15:45-49).

     “In the day that YOU eat from it YOU shall surely die (Genesis 2:17); for Adam to be told HE would die is very different from Adam being told that there was something in him that could not die, but it would live forever in endless torment. In Genesis 3:19 there is a clear statement on what dies“By the sweat of YOUR face YOU shall eat bread, till YOU return to the ground, because from it YOU were taken; for YOU are dust, and to dust YOU shall return” (Also Genesis 18:27; Psalms 103:14; Job 10:9).

*  “It is appointed for MEN to die once and after this comes judgment” (Hebrews 9:27).

*   It is the PERSON that will die.

*   It is the PERSON that returns to dust.

*   It is the PERSON, not a soul that will be resurrected from the dead.

*   It is the PERSON, not a soul that will come into judgment.

*   It is the PERSON, not a soul that will put on immortality, not a soul that cannot die; therefore, a soul could not be resurrected from the undead.

     If, as some teach, Adam was not one “living being” (nehphesh), but two “living being” (nehphesh), an earthly mortal “living being” (nehphesh), and an immortal “living being” (nehphesh) living in the earthly mortal “living being” (nehphesh), which of the two living beings was addressed in the singular pronoun YOU shall surely die”? We are repeatedly told that an immortal soul is deathless and cannot die cannot be the “YOU” that cannot keep form dying.

*  It was Adam, not a soul that was made from the dust.

*  It was Adam, not a soul that ate.

*  It was Adam, not a soul that was told, “dying YOU shall die.”

*  It was Adam, not a soul that was put out and kept out of the garden away from the tree of life.

*  It was Adam, not a soul that died and returned to dust.

     Not one word is said about a soul. If there were a deathless soul living in Adam, it suffered nothing from what Adam did. “In the day that you eat from it YOU shall surely die” is made to be not a real death, but aspiritual death” it is changed to be saying, “In the day you eat you will be a deathless sinner that cannot die.” “Surely die” is used many times and it always means a real death of a real person is a sure thing (Genesis 20:7; 1 Samuel 14:44; 22:16; 1 Kings 2:37; 2:42; Jeremiah 26:8; Ezekiel 3:18; 33:8; 33:14; Numbers 26:65; and many more).

     DR. BERT THOMPSON, PH. D. says Genesis 2:7 is teaching that Adam was given “physical life.” Then he said it is not teaching that Adam had instilled in him “an immortal nature.” “The Origin, Nature, and Destiny of the Soul,” page 19, Apologetics Press, Inc. 2001.

     MIKE WILLIS said expositors have generally appealed to Genesis 2:7 to prove that all men are born with and now have immortal spirits. However, in 1 Corinthians 15:45, Paul has clearly expounded the meaning of the Hebrew words nehphesh, chayyah. "The living soul" of Genesis 2:7 is the natural body of this passage. He said this corresponds with the book of Genesis itself because the same construction is used in Genesis 1:24 to describe animals. When Moses recorded that God breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life and he became a living soul, what the writer of Genesis was saying was that the dust of the earth began to have animal life, and it does not prove that a person has an immortal spirit (soul); rather it states that a person has animal life. All men possess animal life through Adam. “A Commentary On Paul's First Epistle To the Corinthians,” page 578, Guardian Of Truth Foundation, 1979. “The first man Adam became a living soul…the first man is of the earth, earthy” (1 Corinthians 15:45-49).

     GUY N. WOODS said the first time the word soul is used in Genesis 1:20 it is from the Hebrew nehphesh where it is assigned to fish, birds, and creeping things. He said, “It is clear that the soul in these passages does not refer to anything peculiar to the constitution of man, but it signifies, as its usage denotes, and the lexicons affirm, any creature that breathes.” "What Is The Soul Of Man," Gospel Advocate, 1985, Number 21.

     JOHN T. WILLIS, “The last two lines of verse 7 affirm that man’s life is God Given. God enables man to breathe, and thus to be alive, as he does all other creatures (see Gen. 7:22). Some have tried to justify a threefold division of man into flesh (or body), soul, and spirit from Genesis 2:7. They equate dust with flesh or body, breath with spirit, and insist that the last phrase of the verse must be translated as ‘a living soul.’ However, this understanding reads much more into the biblical text than it really says. (1) The Hebrew words for ‘flesh’ or ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ do not occur in this passage. (2) The Hebrew expression nephesh chayyah, which some insist on translating ‘a living soul,’ is used of fish and marine life in Genesis 1:20, 21; land animals in 1:24; beasts, birds, and reptiles in 1:30; and beasts and birds in 2:19. If ‘soul’ means the eternal part of man or the sum total of man’s ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ in Genesis 2:7, it must mean the eternal part of a fish or the sum total of a fish’s ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ in Genesis 1:20, 21; etc. (3) The flow of the context in Genesis 2:7 indicates that the word translated being in the RSV (nephesh) means the whole person. The author’s emphasis is on the gift of life.” The Living Word Commentary, “Genesis,” page 103–104, 1979, Sweet Publishing Company.

     ADAM CLARKE, "Nephesh chayyah; a general term to express all creatures endued with animal life, in any of its infinitely varied gradations, from the half reasoning elephant down to the stupid potto, or lower still, to the polype, which seems equally to share the vegetable and animal life."




1.    “Then the Lord God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (nshahmah), and the man became a living being” (Genesis 2:7). “LIFE” WAS THE ONLY THING ADDED TO “THE MAN” TO MAKE THE MAN FORMED FROM DUST “BECOME A LIVING BEING.” It could not be said any clearer that man is a “living being (nehphesh); it does not say that man had another “living being” (nehphesh) put into him. “The breath of life” from God made Adam become a “living being (nehphesh), as long as that breath of life from God was in him he was a “living being (nehphesh), when the life returned to God (Ecclesiastes 12:7); Adam had no life, and he will not have life unto life again comes to him from God at the resurrection.

2.      And the breath (nshahmah) of the Almighty GIVES ME LIFE(Job 33:4).

3.     “And all flesh that moved on the earth perished, birds and cattle and beasts and every swarming thing that swarms upon the earth, and all mankind; of all that was on the dry land, all in whose nostrils was the breath of life (nshahmah) died.” Both man and animals have the same “breath of life (nshahmah)” both “died (Genesis 7:21-22).

4.     “Saved alive nothing that breaths (nshahmah–breath of life)” both men and animals (Deuteronomy 20:16). “Breath of life” and “breaths” are the same in the Hebrew, both are translated from “nshahmah,” but who knows why the translators choose to make them different in the English Bible, and make their readers understand something that is totally different from what God said.

5.     “Utterly destroyed all that breaths (nshahmah–breath of life)” both men and animals died (Joshua 10:40).

6.     There was not any left to breaths (nshahmah–breath of life)” not a man or a animal left to breath, both died (Joshua 11:11).

7.     “Neither left they any to breaths (nshahmah–breath of life)” both men and animals died (Joshua 11:14)

     Does an immortal immaterial deathless soul or a spirit breathe, or dose a soul die when it stops breathing? It is the breath (nshahmah) of life that God puts into the bodies of both man and animals that gives life (Genesis 2:7), nshahmah–breath is not an immortal deathless soul that has an endless life of its own. If the breath of life (nshahmah) gives immortality to a person, then the same breath of life (nshahmah) would give immortality to all living being, all are given the same nshahmah, the same breath of life. The “breath of life” is as much the possession of all living creatures as it is the possession of man. The “breath of life” does not make any living creature immortal, not animals, not fish, or not persons. All living being depend on this breath from God for life, and all die when the “breath of life” from God returns to God, and if there were no resurrection no person would ever again have any life.

     Question, What effect did the “breath of life” (nshahmah) in the nostrils of animals have on them? Most all would answer that it made them a “living being,” not that it put another “living being” in them, not put an immortal deathless soul in them that will live after the death of the “living being” that a soul was put in. Then what effect did the same “breath of life” (nshahmah) have on mankind? It made them a “living being” just as it did animals; the “breath of life” (nshahmah) did not put a deathless soul in mankind that the same “breath of life” (nshahmah) did not put in animals.

     JAMES HERMAN WHITMORE, “What is more evident than anything else is that the Lord did not address an unconscious body, but a conscious and intelligent man. Whoever or whatever was addressed, the same died. According to the popular notion, the soul is the only part of man that possesses intelligence. The conclusion then is unavoidable, that it was the ‘soul’ that was addressed as ‘thou,’ and sentenced to return to dust. Hence, the soul must not only be mortal, but materialIt is further evident that whatever or whoever sinned, the same died.” “The Doctrine Of Immortality,” page 118, Kellaway and Co. 

     THE BREATH OF LIFE. Many have now switched from a soul being an immortal living being in a person to a spirit being the immortal living being that is in a person; a living being that animals do not have in them; many now believe “spirit” is now the same thing that “soul” has been believed to be for hundreds of years. “Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathe into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.” The phrase “breath of life” that was breathed into man in Genesis 2:7 is the same Hebrew “breath of life” in Genesis 7:21-22 that is in the nostrils of birds, cattle, men and beasts; the “breath of life” in animals is the same “breath of life” that is in persons. The “breath of life” (1) is not an immortal spirit, (2) is not an immortal soul that mankind now have in them that animals do not have it in them; the Bible does not say that the “breath of life” that God breathed into Adam was an immortal deathless spirit or soul that God breathed into him, and the Bible does not say all persons now have a deathless being living in them; the breathless body that God made from the earth is what became a living breathing being when the “breath of life” was breathed into the breathless body. God did not tell Adam he had a body that was made from the earth, but the real Adam was made of something not from the earth.



Nehphesh–a living being, Genesis 2:7

     The body of dust plus the “breath of life” = a living breathing being. “The Lord God formed man of the dust from the ground.”

*  The life of the body. “And breathed into his nostrils the breath of life.” 

*  The result. “And man became a living being.” The lifeless earthly body became alive; the body became a living breathing being.

     Both man and animals became “a living being,” when they received the “breath of life” from God; neither man nor animals had another “living being” put into them.

     “You take away their breath, they die” (Psalms 104:29). The “breath of life” gives life to the person; it does not put a soul in the person that already had it’s own life. The “breath of life” that God breathed into the body gives life to the body, whither it is a body of a persons or the body of an animal; it makes both the person and animal into “a living being.” There is life in the body only as long as the “breath of life” is in the body.

      It was the lifeless body that God made from the earth that became “a living being,” a living person. Most believe as Plato did, that a living deathless soul is imprisoned in the body unto the living soul is able to escape the body, and then the lifeless person goes back to the earth.

     Although this passage is repeatedly used to prove that immortal, deathless souls was put in persons that was not put in animals, most translations other than the King James apply nehphesh to the living breathing being or person, not to an invisible, deathless, immaterial something that does not have breath. Adam being spoken of as "a living being" (nehphesh Strong’s Hebrew word #5315–“a breathing creature”) proves he was mortal, not immortal, just as all "living beings” (nehphesh) fish, birds, animals, are mortal, not immortal. How can this be one of the most used proof texts used to prove Adam had an immortal soul put in him? If it proves Adam had an immortal soul, then it proves that fish have an immortal soul that cannot die.

     “The body without the spirit is dead” (James 2:36). Just as the body when God made the body it had no life unto God “breathed into his nostrils the breath of life and the MAN became a living being (Genesis 2:7), when “The dust will return to the earth as it was, and the spirit (ruach) will return to God who gave it” (Ecclesiastes 12:7); after death there is no “living being” and will not be “a living being” unto the resurrection when life will again come from God, life to the person that died. “Soul” with the meaning it has today (an immortal being that is in a person) is a total mistranslation. If the “breath of life” that returns to God at the death of the person is a conscious “living being” (nehphesh) that returns to God in Heaven, that soul (living being) could not return to God in Heaven if it had not previously existed with God; it is life (“the breath of life”) that came from God and returns to God that makes all mankind alive; the life that was breathed into all mankind and breathed into all living beings that returns to God. “His breath (ruach) goes forth, he returns to his earth” (Psalms 146:4).

     Both “a living being” and “breath of life” are used by most that call themselves orthodox to prove mankind has an immortal soul in them that no animal has. Both mankind and all animals are “a living being” and both have the “breath of life,” both can and do die. Having the “breath of life” makes both a person and an animal have life, it does not make mankind or animals have an immortal soul in them.

     It is importance to understand that it is being said by Moses that both animals and mankind ARE A SOUL, both are “a living being,” both have the same breath of life that came from God, not that animals or mankind HAD A SOUL PUT IN THEM, HAD A LIVING SOMETHING PUT IN THEM; they did not have something put in them that is immortal and invisible; there is not a no substitute something in a person that will not die when the person it is in is dead. Many assume, with much help from the translators and their theology that Genesis is saying only mankind have souls, but animals do not. Because of what most have been taught, without realizing it they read into this that only mankind had souls put in them that are invisible, no substitutes something that cannot die. This causes them to believe that only this deathless something that is in them, whatever they think this something is, that only it will be saved (more on this near the end of this chapter). A soul is not a second “(nehphesh)” (nehphesh), an unearthly “living being” (nehphesh) that exist within the earthly person any more than a soul is a second entity existing in beast. Both man and animals are souls, both are living beings. We are a soul, “a living being;” we do not have a soul that is living in us that is not us that is not the person, not a soul that will live after we are dead. If we have a soul that is “a living being” (nehphesh) in us, then we are one “living being” (nehphesh) with another, a second “living being” (nehphesh) living in us. According to the doctrine that we have a soul living in us, one “living being” (nehphesh) is living in another “living being” (nehphesh), and it is only this immortal deathless being that is us that will be saved or tormented forever is the foundation of many of the errors that have divided the churches. That we are a soul, “a living being,” not we have a soul; not that we have another “living being” living in us; this is one of the most fundamental and most misunderstood teaching in the Bible.

     (6). Genesis 2:19, "LIVING CREATURE" (nehpheshs–mortal beings, used referring to animals), "Every beast...every bird...whatsoever the man called every living creature (nehpheshs–mortal living beings), that was the name thereof."

     (7). Genesis 9:4, "LIFE" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to animals).

     (8). Genesis 9:5, "LIVES(nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to man).

     (9). Genesis 9:5, "LIFE(nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to man).

     (10). Genesis 9:10, "LIVING CREATURE" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to animals).

     (11). Genesis 9:12,"LIVING CREATURE" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to animals).

     (12). Genesis 9:15, "LIVING CREATURE" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to both man and animals).

     (13). Genesis 9:16, "LIVING CREATURE" (nehpheshs–mortal living beings, used referring to both man and animals).

Genesis 9:4-16

     In Genesis 9:4-16 the same word is used for both man and animals seven times in the same passage; to animals five times, to man four times, none of the seven was translated “soul” not even in the King James Version.

*  Three times to animals alone, translated (1) life, (2) creature, (3) and creature.

*  Two times to man alone, nehphesh translated (1) lives, (2) and life.

*  Two times to both animals and man, nehphesh translated creature both times.

     "But flesh with the (1) LIFE (Nehphesh used referring to animals) thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat. And surely your blood, the blood of your (2) LIVES (nehphesh, used referring to man), will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of men, even at the hand of every man's brother, will I require the (3) LIFE

(nehphesh, used referring to man) of man. Whoso sheds man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God made He-men. And you, be you fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein. And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, and I, behold, I establish my covenant with you and with your seed after you; and every (4) LIVING CREATURE (nehphesh, used referring to animalsthat is with you, of the fowl, and the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth. And I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall the waters of a flood cut off all flesh be any more; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth. And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every (5) LIVING CREATIRE (nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you, for perpetual generation, I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a token of a covenant between me and the earth. And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud, and I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and ever (6) LIVING CREATURE of all flesh; (nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every (7) LIVING CREATURE (nehphesh, used referring to man and animalsof all flesh that is upon the earth."

      All four times that soul (nehphesh) is used in Genesis 1; it is referring to animals, not to a person. IN TEN OF THE FIRST THIRTEEN TIMES NEHPHESH (soul) IS USED IT IS USED REFERRING TO ANIMALS, but the King James Version delicately hid this from you by using different words, and most who read the King James Version never know what was delicately hid from them. Mankind is the same soul (life–nehphesh) as all other "living creatures.” He does not differ from other living creatures (soul–nehphesh) by having a soul (nehphesh) living in him that cannot die. His dominion over other living creatures (other nehpheshs–souls) is not his nehphesh. In the first nine chapters of Genesis soul (nehphesh–Strong’s Hebrew word #5315–“a breathing creature”) nehphesh is used more often with reference to animals than it is with reference to persons; nehphesh is the animal life, which both a person and animals have in common. How did the translators think they had the right to change this word to an invisible immortal something that is in a person, which animals do not have?

     This is an example of men attempting to cover up the truth when it is contradictory to their pagan theology. It takes a lot of preconceived man made theology to make nehphesh be an immaterial invisible no substance soul that is now immortal existing in a man that dose not exist in animals when it is not deliberately hid as it is in the King James Version. Moses applies nehphesh four times to lower creatures before he applied it to man, then immediately after he has applied it to man he again applied the same word to animals a fifth and sixth time with no hint that Moses uses the same word with a different meaning. When the translators changed it and give it a different meaning in only one of the six times it is used in the first two chapters of Genesis it is nothing more than a deliberate change to add Plato’s Greek pagan immortal soul to God word.


A bird’s eye view of the translation of nehphesh in the first nine chapters, King James Version.

1. “Moving creature that has life" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:20 – animals

2. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:21 – animals

3. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:24 – animals

4. “Wherein there is life" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:30 – animals

5. “A living soul" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:7 – man

6. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:19 – animals

7. “Life" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:4 – animals

8. “Lives (nehphesh) Genesis 9:5 – man

9. “Life" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:5 – man

10. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:10 – animals

11. Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:12 – animals

12. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:15 – to both man and animals

13. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:16 – to both man and animals

Nehphesh is translated "soul" only one time of the first thirteen times it is used in the King James Version, but it is not translated "soul" in any of the first thirteen times it is used in the New King James Version, New American Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, New International Version, or most other translations.


(14). Genesis 12:5, "And the PEOPLE (nehpheshs–"living beings"whom they had acquired" New King James Version ("soul" in King James Version). Why did the New King James change this from “souls” to “people;” was it that the translators did not believe invisible souls could be bought, but people could be bought, and that as it is translated in the King James Version it did not say anything close to todays theology?

     (15). Genesis 12:13, "That I (nehphesh–a "living being"may live because of you" New King James Version ("soul" in King James Version.) Do you wonder why, “That a soul may live” was changed to “That I may live” when in today’s man made theology “I” and

soul are not even close to being the same thing? THAT A SOUL THAT CANNOT DIE “MAY LIVE”?

      (16). Genesis 14:21, "Give me the PERSONS (nehphesh–"living beings”and take the goods," Can anyone give immortal souls to another person? Is there anyone that cannot see why even the King James translators did not changed nehphesh to “soul” in this passage?

     (17). Genesis 17:14, "That PERSON (nehphesh–a "living being"shall be cut off" New King James Version.

     (18). Genesis 19:17, “Escape for your LIFE (nehphesh–a "living being") King James Version.

     (19). Genesis 19:19, “Saving my LIFE (nehphesh–a "living being") King James Version. Save a persons life, not the life of a deathless soul.

     In the first nineteen times nehphesh is used it is translated “soul”

Only three of the nineteen times in the King James Version.

None of the first nineteen times in the New King James Version.

None of the first nineteen times in the New American Standard Version.

None of the first nineteen times in the New Revised Standard Version.

None of the first nineteen times in the New International Version.

     (20). Genesis 19:20, "That my LIFE (nehphesh–a "living being") may be saved" New American Standard Version (Translated soul for the fourth time in the King James Version, but only for the first time in the New King James Version). Do you wonder why the translators of the New King James Version did not think this word means “soul” in the nineteen times it was used before this, but changed their minds this time? But the New American Standard translators said both King James Versions translators are wrong.

     (21). Genesis 23:8, “If it be your MIND” (nehphesh–a "living being")

King James Version.

     (22). Genesis 27:4, "So that I (nehphesh–a "living being") may bless you before I die"

"That my soul (nehphesh–a "living being") may bless thee before I die” King James Version. How would Isaac's son know if he were blessed by an "immaterial invisible" no substance something that he could not see? By this time, hundreds of years after Genesis 1:1, the King James translators must have been desperate to be able to put "soul" into the Bible.

*  "So that I (nehphesh–a "living being") may bless you before I die” Revised Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version.

*  "So that I (nehphesh–a "living being") may give you my blessing before I die" New International Version.

*  "So that I (nehphesh–a "living being") may give you my blessing before I die” Revised English Bible.

*  "To give you my (nehphesh–a "living being") blessing before I die" Amplified Bible.

*  "That I (nehphesh–a "living being") may give you my special blessing before I die” New American Bible.

*  "Then I (nehphesh–a "living being") will bless you before I die" New Century Version.

*  "Then I (nehphesh–a "living being") will pronounce the blessing that belongs to you, my firstborn son, before I die" New Living Translation.

*  "(nehphesh–a "living being") want to eat it once more and give you my blessing before I die" Contemporary English Version.

*  "That (nehphesh–a "living being") may eat of it, (preparatory) to giving you (as my firstborn) my blessing before I die" Amplified Bible.

Up to Genesis 27:4 for hundreds of years nehphesh is translated soul

*   Only five times out of twenty-two in the King James Version. 

*   Only one time out of twenty-two in the New King James Version. 

*   None in The American Standard Version and most others.

     Nehphesh has been used 22 times before the New King James Version translated it "soul" for the first time, but even then the translators of many versions have chosen not to change the way they were translating nehphesh from a breathing being to a non-breathing whatever a "soul" is believed to be. In Genesis "nehphesh" is not an immortal "immaterial, invisible part of man,” but it is the life of living creatures, living beings, any living breathing things whether animals, fish, or man; all mortal breathing beings are a nehphesh. If the translators had continued to translate nehphesh as life, living creatures, living beings, animals, or persons, as they did in most of the first twenty-two times it is used, there may not be the divisions there are today. Why did they not translate nehphesh into soul in the first part of the Bible that covers hundreds of years? Maybe because they thought it would have made animals have souls, and they did not believe animals could have souls. I find it difficult to see how anyone could not call their honesty into question for it is undeniable that they put their belief over the word of God, and they deliberately hid the truth from their readers; they deliberately hid the truth from you.

     (23). Genesis 32:30, "My LIFE (nehphesh–"living beings") is preserved” King James Version. Most translations use "life," not “soul” in this passage for the translators believed an immortal soul could not perish and would not need to be preserved; therefore, they did not change nehphesh to soul.

     (24). Genesis 34:3, "His soul (nehphesh) clave unto Dinah" King James Version. With the meaning “soul” now has, if the King James translation is not saying an immaterial immortal soul clave unto a material mortal person, then what is it saying?

     *  "He (nehphesh) was deeply attracted to Dinah" New American Standard Version.

     *  "His HEART (nehphesh) was drawn to Dinah" New International Version.

      (25). Genesis 34:8 "The soul (nehphesh) of my son Shechem longeth for your daughter" King James Version. How did the translators think the father could know what an invisible, immaterial something that was in his son was longing for? Did they think an immortal no substance soul was in love with a mortal person? Or were they just desperate to be able to put the pagan “soul” that they believed in into the Bible?

     *  "He (nehphesh) was deeply attracted to Dinah" New American Standard Version.

     *  "His HEART (nehphesh) was drawn to Dinah" New International Version.

      (26). Genesis 35:18, "As her SOUL (nehphesh) was departing (for she died)" King James Version.

*  "Then with her last breath, (nehphesh) as she was dying" Revised English Bible.

*  ”With Rachel’s last breath (nehphesh)  (for she died)” The Living Bible.

*  “With her last breath (nehphesh) for she was at the point of death” New American


*  “Rachel was about to die, but with her last breath (nehphesh)” New Living Bible.

*  "As she breathed (nehphesh) her last–for she was dying" New International


     (27). Genesis 36:6, "All the PERSONS (nehpheshs–mortal beings) of his house" King James Version.

     (28). Genesis 37:21, "Let us not kill HIM (nehphesh–a mortal being)" King James Version. It was obvious to the translators that they could not translate this nehphesh into soul, after all they tell us an immortal soul cannot be killed, but a person (“him”) can be killed.

     (29). Exodus 12:16, “Except what must be eaten by ever PERSON (nehpheshs–mortal beings).” A soul as was believed in by the translators could not eat, therefore; they would not change this nehphesh into a soul.

     (30). Job 12:10, "In whose hand is the SOUL (nehpheshs) of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind." Is it not strange that the King James Version gives animals souls, but most other translations, even the New King James Version took their souls away from them?

 The life of every living thing” New King James Version.     

“The life of every living thing" New American Standard Bible.

     (31). Job 41:21, “His breath” (nehphesh–a mortal being, used referring to an animal, possibly a crocodile).

     (32). Isaiah 19:10, "All that make sluices and ponds for FISH

 (Nehphesh–a mortal beings, used referring to fish)" King James Version. Although nehphesh is in the Hebrew, many translations seems not to know what to do with it, and just took it out, or completely changed it for they did not want whatever they believed a soul is to be in a pond.

     (33). Jeremiah 2:24, "A wild ass used to the wilderness, that snuffed up the wind in HER (nehphesh–a mortal being, referring to an animal) desire.”

     (34). -- (35). Proverbs 27:7, “The full SOUL (nehphesh–a mortal being) loathes an honeycomb; but to the hungry SOUL (nehphesh–a mortal being) ever bitter thing is sweet.” How could it to have been possible for the translators think an immaterial something could be full, or that a soul could be hungry for honey or any kind of food?

*  “A sated MAN (nehphesh) loathes honey, but to a famished MAN

     (nehpheshany bitter thing is sweet” New American Standard Bible.

*  “HE (nehphesh) who is full loathes honey, but to the hungry even what is bitter tastes sweet. “Nehphesh” is in the Hebrew two times, but one of the two times nehphesh was left out in the New International Version.

     (36). Numbers 31:28, "And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war which went out to battle: one SOUL (nehphesh–mortal being–used referring to both persons and animalsof five hundred, both of the persons, and of the beeves, and of the asses and of the sheep." Of about 870 times “nehphesh” is in the Old Testament Numbers 31:28 and Job 12:10 are the only two passages where the King James translators translated “nehphesh” as “soul” when it has reference to animals, and it maybe that the only reason they did these two times is that it has equal reference to people as it does to animals and they had no choice. Their usual substitutes failed to work; “living creatures” or “person” would not work for them in these two passages as nehphesh has reference to both man and animals.

     DAVID J. HEINIZMAN, "So carefully has the translation of nehphesh been guarded in relation to animals as 'souls,' that we can't help but wonder if it were not done intentionally to conceal the fact that animals are souls as well as men." "Man Became A Living Soul."

     (37). Proverbs 12:10: “A righteous man has regard for the LIFE (nehphesh) of his beast.”

     (38 to 870). It would be to long to quote all the 870 times the Hebrew word nehphesh is in the Old Testament with just over one-half being translated "soul," about 473 times in King James Version. Not once dose any of the 870 imply anything about any life beyond a grave, or about there being a deathless soul that is “a living being” living in a mortal person.

     The translators made this one word (nehphesh) to be,

1.  Any earthly being.

a.    Any earthly being before God breathed the breath of life into the body of a person or a beast.

b.    Any earthly being while they had the breath of life.

c.    And any dead body after the breath of life of the person or beast was gone.

2.  The life in any earthly being only while they have the breath of life in them.

3.  The pagan immaterial, invisible, no substance, deathless being that many believe lives after the person that a soul was in is dead, but this deathless being is not believed to be in any beast.

     Do you wonder, as I do, how the translators came up all with these meaning of this one word, meaning that are nothing alike, (1) how they knew when this word was a mortal “living being” that could not keep from dying, (2) and when the same word was a immortal “living being” that could not die?

A nehphesh-a living being could be

1.   Saved (Genesis 19:19; 1 Samuel 19:11; 2 Samuel 19:5)

2.   Killed (Numbers 35:11; 35:15; 35:30)

3.   Ransomed (Exodus 21:30)

4.   Destroyed (Leviticus 23:30; Joshua 11:11)

5.   Delivered (Joshua 2:13)

6.   Sought to be killed (Judges 18:25)

7.   Taken (Deuteronomy 19:21)

8.   Forfeited (Joshua 2:14)

9.   Risked (Judges 12:3; 1 Samuel 28:21)

10.   Lost (Judges 1:25)

11.   Jeopardized (Judges 5:18; 1 Samuel 19:50)

     All 870 times have one thing in common, all of the ways nehphesh is translated are all associated with the activity of living beings including dying, and nehphesh never implies anything about any life after the death of living beings, all the 870 are all speaking of living beings of both persons and animals that will die, or that are already dead. None of the 870 times are an immortal deathless being that is in a person; they are all speaking of mortal living beings that can die, can be killed, or can be dead, whether the “living being” is a person, animal, bird, or fish. Nehphesh never implies anything about any kind of life beyond a grave. IT IS NEVER TRANSLATED "SPIRIT" Although nehphesh–Strong’s Hebrew word #5315 “a breathing creature”– is translated into about forty words, thirty-nine of the forty all have reference only to mortal beings that will die; it was changed by the translators in only one (soul) of the forty words into a something that the translators believed does not have breath, and believed that it cannot die. Is was because this is the only word that they could use to put the Pagan immortal soul into the Bible by mistranslating, but were not able to mistranslate it into an immortal invisible deathless something most of the times it was used?

     Can one word be rightly translated this way? No one reading some of the English translations of the Bible would not have any way of knowing that all the about forty or more words which nehphesh is changed into are translations, or mistranslations of only one word. Did the translators do so because they wanted to make a person be an "immortal being," and more than a "living creatures?" In almost one half of the times nehphesh is used in the Old Testament, even the King James translators could not change it to "soul." When the all-knowing God used just one word, why did the translators used about forty words and change it as they wished to, (1) changed it from a noun to many pronouns, (2) changed from a noun to many verbs, (3) changed from a noun to many adjectives, (4) changed from a noun to many adverbs,  (5) etc.? Did they think that for all the years from Adam unto Christ people could understand the one word God used, which was always a noun, but now many words that are not a noun are needed to translate that one word, this one noun? If one word were all that was needed from Adam unto the translation of the King James Version in 1611, why would God's one word not be enough today? Do the translators think they have improved the Hebrew Old Testament by changing the one word that God used into about forty words, and changing this noun into about all parts of speech? The use of many words came when the Roman Catholic Church brought in unconditional immortality from pagan philosophers, and they put it into their Latin Bible, and the first English translations were translated from their Latin Bible, only partly from Hebrew and Greek; the 1611 King James Version is mostly a translation of a translation, (1) a translation from the Greek to the Roman Catholic Latin Bible, (2) then the King James Verson was translated mostly from their Latin Bible to English. The original 1611 version contained the fourteen Apocrypha Roman Catholic books that the translators beloved to be the word of God just as they believed much of the Roman Catholic theology and put much of it into the Bible by coping the mistranslation of the Roman Catholic Latin Bible. The King James Version used today is not the 1611 version that used the old English spelling and is very hard to read; it has been retranslated several times’ the King James translation used today was translated in 1882. The Hebrew manuscripts still have just one word–nehphesh, which was the one word God inspired. Nehphesh is translated soul far fewer times in the New American Standard Version, and in most other translations, including the New King James Version, than it is in the King James Version. Were they going as far as they dared to in correcting the King James Version?

     The way soul is understood and used today in English (an undying living something that is in a person) makes putting the word soul in a translation for the English people today be a false and deliberately misleading translation, for it makes it where today's English reader cannot know what God said, and will understand only what the prejudiced outlook the translators wanted their readers to understand when they knew that most that read it would understand the word soul only as it was used by Plato, as it is used in today’s English. Without much study of Bible words, which most Bible reader will never do, they cannot know what God said to them when they read the word soul, and they will think that the prejudice outlook of the translator is the word of God. GOD'S WORD WAS DELIBERATELY REPLACED WITH THE TEACHING OF MAN (MATTHEW 15:9) IN A WAY THAT WILL HAVE MORE INFLUENCE ON OUR CONCEPTION OF WHAT OUR NATURE IS AND THE NATURE OF ALL LIVING BEINGS THAN ANY OTHER QUESTION.


      Is the immortal "soul" (nehphesh) in the blood? Is a part of a person that many say it lives after the death of the body, is a deathless soul in the blood of both men and animals? In Leviticus 17:10-15; in only six verses nehphesh is used ten times but the translators concealed this from their readers by translating nehphesh as both life and soul, always life the four times it was speaking of animals, and soul the six times it was speaking of a person; does this not show their reluctance to let us see what God said to us?

The vanishing use of soul in Leviticus 17:10-15

1.   In the King James Version nehphesh is translated "soul" six of the ten times it is used.

2.   The New King James Version used "soul" only two of the ten times.

3.   "Soul" is not used in the (1) New Revised Standard Version, (2) New International Version, (3) The New American Bible, (4) and many others.

 Leviticus 17:10-15 King James Version

1.   Used referring to animals four times–nehphesh translated life four times.

2.   Used referring to man six times–nehphesh translated soul six times. 

     "I will even set my face against that SOUL (person–nehphesh, used referring to man) that eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people. For the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals that are being eat) of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your SOULS, (nehphesh, used referring to man) for it is the blood that makes an atonement for a SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man). Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, no SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) of you shall eat blood...For it is the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh; the blood of it is for the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel, no SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the

LIFE (soul-nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eats it shall be cut off. And every SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) that eats that which died of itself...he shall wash his clothes, and bath himself in water." In this passage, the King James Version translated the same word "soul" all six times when it used referring to man TO A MORTAL LIVING PERSON THAT COULD EAT BLOOD, but changed it to "life" all four times when the same word is used referring to animals. Can anyone not see how the translators picked when they wanted "nehphesh" to be an immortal "soul," and when they wanted "nehphesh" to be only mortal "life"? They could not let an immortal soul be in the blood, nor could they let animals have an immortal soul in them. Their theology said a man had to have a soul in him, but an animal could not have one, and they were not willing that their reader see that the word "nehphesh" is used referring to both, and that both man or animals do not have a soul, that both are a soul – both are a living being.

Leviticus 17:10-15 New Revised Standard Version

1.   Used referring to mortal animals five times–nehphesh translated life five


2.   Used referring to living mortal man five times–nehphesh translated lives one time, translated person four times. A soul could not eat blood; therefore, none of the five are mistranslated soul. No soul in this translation.

     "If anyone of the house of Israel or of the aliens who reside among them eats any blood, I will set my face against that PERSON (nehphesh) who eats blood, and will cut that PERSON (nehphesh) off from the people. For the LIFE (nehphesh-animals) of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you for making atonement for your LIVES (nehphesh-persons) on the altar, for, as LIFE, (nehphesh-animals) it is the blood that makes atonement. Therefore I have said to the people of Israel, No PERSON (nehphesh) 

among you shall eat blood...For the LIFE (nehphesh-animals) of every creatureits blood is its LIFE; (nehphesh-animals) therefore I have said to the people of Israel, You shall not eat the blood of any creature, for the LIFE (nehphesh-animals) of every creature is its blood; whoever eats it shall be cut off. ALL PERSONS(nehphesh) citizens or aliens, who eat what dies of itself...shall wash their clothes, and bathe themselves in water."

Leviticus 17:10-15 New International Version

1.  Used referring to animals three times–nehphesh translated life three times.

2.  Used referring to man six times–nehphesh translated person, him, yourselves, life, you, and anyone. No soul in this translation.

     "Any Israelite or any alien living among them who eats any bloodI will set my face against that PERSON (nehphesh) who eats blood and will cut HIM (nehphesh person) off from his people. For the LIFE (nehphesh-animals) of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for YOURSELVES (nehphesh-persons) on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonements for one's LIFE (nehphesh-person). Therefore I say to the Israelites, 'None of YOU (nehphesh-persons) may eat blood, nor may an alien living among you eat blood'...because the Life (nehphesh-animals) of every creature is its blood. That is why I have said to the Israelites, You must not eat the blood of any creature, because the LIFE (nehphesh-animals) of every creature is its blood; anyone who eats it must be cut off. ANYONE (nehphesh-persons), whether native-born or alien, who eats anything found dead or torn by wild animals must wash his clothes and bathe with water.”

     1.  "No soul (nehphesh) shall eat blood" (Leviticus 17:12). No person shall eat blood–can an immortal, immaterial soul eat material blood?

     2.  "The life (nehphesh) of all flesh is the blood" (Leviticus 17:11). They would not translate it to say, “The soul of all flesh is in the blood.”

     3.  "No dead body (nehphesh)" A dead immortal soul?

     The same word that is translated soul and life is translated dead body (Numbers 6:6, also Numbers 5:2; 6:11; 9:6; 9:10). These passages would make no sense if nehphesh were a no substance, immortal something in a person that cannot be dead. It would also make animals have the same no substance, immortal something in them that cannot be dead. It is the life of a parson or animal that is in the blood, not a deathless, immaterial, invisible soul in the blood as the word "soul" is used today. Nehphesh is translated dead body thirteen times in the King James Version, not a dead soul.



     In translations that were mostly made by those who believed a person has an immortal soul, why is the use of the word "soul" becoming used less? The dying use of “soul” in the newer translations and the growing use of  “life” "person," "heart," or pronouns that are related to a person in the place of “soul” is strongly objected to by many that believe there is an immortal soul that will live on after the person is dead; that believe Satan’s lie, You surely shall not die…you will be like God” (Genesis 3:5), but only after they change the “YOU” to “a soul that is in you ‘surely shall not die’ when you die,” and made a soul be as immortal as God is.

Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament 870 times


Š     Only 443 times out of 870 times–King James Version in 1611.

Š     Only 289 times out of 870 times–New King James Version in 1982. Soul is used

154 times less in the Old Testament than it is in the King James Version.

Š     Only 188 times out of 870 times–Revised Standard Version in 1946.

Š     Only 144 times out of 870 times–New Revised Standard Version in 1989.

Š     Only 142 times out of 870 times–The Message in 1993.

Š     Only 115 times out of 870 times–New International Version in 1973.

Š     Only 72 times out of 870 times– New International Version in 2011 update.

Š     Only 111 times out of 870 times–Amplified Bible in 1954.

Š     Only 111 times out of 870 times–New American Standard Bible in 1960.

Š     Only 96 times out of 870 times–New International Reader's Version in 1996.

Š     Only 44 times out of 870 times–New Living Translation in 1996.

Š     Only 5 times out of 878 times–Common English Bible in 2011.

Š     0 times out of 870 times–New Century Version in 2005.

     When nehphesh was not translated "soul" it was translated "life," "person," "heart," or the noun was changed to many pronouns (he, him, she, her, etc.) that are related to a person or animal, and has no reference to an immortal being that some believe is in a person.



     The Greek word translated soul (psukee) is used 106 times. PSUKEE IS TRANSLATED SOUL,

Š      Only 55 times out of 106 times in the King James Version in 1611.

Š    Only 52 times out of 106 times in the New King James Version in 1982. 

Š    Only 41 times out of 106 times–Revised Standard Version in 1946.

Š    Only 31 times out of 106 times–New Revised Standard Version in1989.

Š    Only 41 times out of 106 times–New International Version in 1971.

Š    Only 23 times out of 106 times–New International Version in 2011 update.

Š    Only 29 times out of 106 times–New Living Translation in 1996.

Š    Only 25 times out of 106 times–New Century Version in 2005.

Š    Only 21 times out of 106 times–New English Bible in 2011.

Š    Only 0 times out of 106 times–Christian Bible in 1991.



     The Hebrew word nehphesh that some of the time is translated soul is used over 870 times in the Old Treatment, and the Greek word psukee, sometimes translated soul is used 106 times, both together about 976 times.



Š      Only 498 times out of 976 times–King James Version in 1611.

Š    Only 341 times out of 976 times–New King James Version in 1982. Soul is used 157

times less in the New King James Version than it is in the King James Version.

Š     Only 111 times out of 976 times–Amplified Bible in 1954.

Š     Only 190 times out of 976 times–New American Standard Bible in 1960.

Š     Only 229 times out of 976 times–Revised Standard Version in 1946.

Š     Only 175 times out of 976 times–New Revised Standard Version in 1989.

Š     Only 229 times out of 976 times–New International Version in 1971.

Š     Only 136 times out of 976 times–New International Version in 1984.

Š     Only 118 times out of 976 times–New International Version in 2011 update.

Š     Only 41 times out of 976 times–New International Reader's Version in 1996.

Š     Only 177 times out of 976 times–The Message in 1993.

Š     Only 73 times out of 976 times–New Living Translation in 1996.

Š     Only 35 times out of 976 times–New Century Version in 2005.

Š     Only 8 times out of 976 times–Common English Bible in 2011.

Š     0 times New Testament–Christian Bible in 1991.

     Most, if not all these translators believe in an immortal soul, but have been reducing the times this Hebrew word nehphesh, and the Greek word psukee are translated "soul" and replacing then with "life," "person," "heart," or changed them to pronouns that are related to a person. The way soul has been mostly removed in most translations, and replaced with life or person, the translators are saying soul is not a true translation of neither the Hebrew Old Testament, nor the Greek New Testament.


     In many passages the psukee does thing that only this earthly body can do, things that an immortal soul that has no substance could not do. “And He told them a parable, saying, "The land of a rich man was very productive. And he began reasoning to himself, saying, 'What shall I do, since I have no place to store my crops?' Then he said, 'this is what I will do, I will tear down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. And I will say to my soul (psukee), soul (psukee)you have many goods laid up for many years to come; take your ease, eat, drink and be merry.’ But God said to him, ‘you fool! This very night your soul (psukee-life) is required of you'" (Luke 12:19-21). That which the rich man laid up for his “soul”(psukee) in verse 19 is said to be laid up for “himself” in verse 21 making both psukee and himself be the same thing. The New International Version removed “soul.” “And I'll say to myself (Greek psukeelife), ‘you (Greek psukeelife) have plenty of good things laid up for many years. Take life easy; eat drink and be merry.’ But, God said to him, ‘you fool! This very night your life (Greekpsukee) will be demanded from you;’” in this passage the same word, “psukee” is translated “myself,” “you,” and “life.” It is obvious that an immaterial, invisible, no substance soul would have no use for the things the rich man stored in his barns, a soul would not be able to eat and drink the thing stored in barns, that this was not speaking of an immaterial soul without any substance, but was speaking of an earthly person that can eat and drink of the things he had stored, but could not use them after he was dead; it was life that would be required of the earthly person, not life of an immortal soul that cannot die; when a persons life was required who would use the things he had stored? 

     It is those who are members of churches that believe a person has an immortal soul that are little by little taking the word "soul" out of the Bible in their translations. Why is soul being used less in the newer translations? These translators knew soul is not a translation of nehphesh or psukee as they were used at the time the Old or New Testament was written, neither nehphesh nor psukee had the meaning that the English word “soul” has today.

     A few of the many examples that show why the numbers above are difficult in difficult translations.

Numbers 29:7

"Ye shall afflict your souls (nehphesh)" King James Version.

"You shall humble yourselves (nehphesh)" New American Standard.

Joshua 11:11

"They smote all the souls (nehphesh)" King James Version.

"Not sparing anything that breathed (nehphesh)" New International Version.

Judges 16:16

"His soul (nehphesh) was vexed unto death" King James Version.

"Unto he (nehphesh) was tired to death" New International Version.

Numbers 30:2

"To bind his soul (nehphesh) with a bond" King James Version.

"To bind himself (nehphesh) with a binding obligation" New American Standard.

Numbers 15:30

"That soul (nehphesh) shall be cut off" King James Version.

"That person (nehphesh) shall be cut off" New American Standard Version.

     Acts 15:24-26 is an example of how the translation of psukee was changed even in the same passage by the translators when it would not fit in with their pagan belief about an immortal soul. “Since we have heard that some of our number to whom we gave no instruction have disturbed you with their words, unsettling your souls (psukee)it seemed good to us, having become of one mind, to select men to send to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, men who have risked their lives (psukee) for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.” The psukee–life they risked was their earthly lives, not deathless souls, it was living persons that was disturbed, not souls.

*  “Certain persons who have gone out from us, though with no instruction from us, have said things to disturb you and have unsettled your minds

(psukee)…who has risked their lives (psukee)” New Revised Standard Version.

*  “And disturbed you, troubling your minds (psukee) by what they said…men who have risked their lives (psukee) for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ” New International Version.

*  “We have heard that some of our group have come to you and said things that trouble and upset you (psukee)…people who have given their lives (psukee) to serve our Lord” New Century Version.

     AARON ELLIS, “It is plain from history, that our first transcribers and translators were Romanish priests, who were interested in sustaining the profitable corruptions of the separate existence of the soul in purgatory, and the endless misery of the wicked. Every English translation made prior to the 18th century, has but too clearly copied from the Vulgate, and the translators were not able, as McKnight has fully prove, to translate the whole Bible from the original tongues, and the various editions only profess to be compared with the original. King James, who died a Papist, gave strict orders to translators of our common version, not to deviate widely from the Bishop’s Bible, to be followed, and as little altered as the original will permit.” “Bible Vs. Tradition,” page 6, 1853.

      The Hebrew noun, nehphesh, has been changed by the translators into many different pronouns, but all the pronouns they changed it to have a reference to an earthly being, none to the Greek no substance soul that Plato beloved in and was brought into the church by the Roman Catholics in the Dark Age. Nehphesh did not mean an immaterial invisible something in a person that was not the person in the Old Testament; how could the translators think it was right to change one noun into many pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc.?

    The Hebrew people in the Old Testament that were reading their Scriptures would have had no way to make a distinction in the life (soul–nehphesh) of animals or men for Moses made no distinction. Even today in the Hebrew Old Testament there is no distinction between a person or an animal being a living creature, but translators have changed this. Only in the English translations, not in the Hebrew, is there a distinction, and this distinction is because men have changed God's word. God used the same word to describe both persons and animals. If this one word proves anyone now has a deathless soul in them, it would prove both man and animals now have a deathless soul in them. Man says animals do not have a soul that lives in them unto their death, but there are souls that are living in people that will live after the people that they were in are dead. God says both people and animals are a soul, not that they have a soul in them.

     In many passages nehphesh is rightly translated persons, not souls. “Soul” as it is used today is a completely difference thing than “person,” but the translators in trying to put “soul” into the Bible translated both from the same Hebrew word just as they also translated the same word into “life” and many other words in many passages where the translators did not think they could change “nehphesh” a mortal being into an immortal soul. 

1. “Give me the persons (nehphesh)” (Genesis 17:14)

2.“All the persons (nehphesh)” (Genesis 37:31)

3. “The persons (nehphesh) shall be for the Lord” (Leviticus 26:29)

4. “And that person (nehphesh) be guilty” (Numbers 5:2)

5. “Body of any man (nehphesh)” (Numbers 19:11)

6. “The dead body of any man (nehphesh)” (Numbers 19:13)

7. “The person (nehphesh) that was there” (Numbers 19:18)

8. “Killed any person (nehphesh)” (Numbers 31:19)

9. “Two thousand persons (nehphesh)” (Numbers 31:35)

10. “And sixteen thousands persons (nehphesh)” (Numbers 31:46)

11. “Which killed any person (nehphesh)” (Numbers 35:11)

12. “That killed any person (nehphesh)” (Numbers 35:30)

13. “An innocent person (nehphesh)” (Deuteronomy 27:25)

14. “That killeth any person (nehphesh)” (Joshua 20:3)

15. “God respect any person (nehphesh)” (2 Samuel 14:14)

16. “They had decreed for themselves (nehphesh)” (Esther 9:31)

17. “He teareth himself (nehphesh)” (Job 18:4)

18. “He justified himself (nehphesh)” (Job 32:2)

19. “I have behaved and quieted myself (nehphesh)” (Psalms 132:2)

20. “The blood of any person (nehphesh)” (Proverbs 28:17)

21. “Has enlarged herself (nehphesh)” (Isaiah 5:14)

22. “Shall not deliver themselves (nehphesh)” (Isaiah 47:14)

23. “Whom any man  (nehphesh) despiseth” (Isaiah 49:7)

24. “Has justified herself (nehphesh)” (Jeremiah 3:11)

25. “Take heed to yourselves (nehphesh)” (Jeremiah 17:21)

26. “Deceive not yourselves (nehphesh)” (Jeremiah 37:9)

27. “Every person (nehphesh)” (Jeremiah 43:6)

28. “Sworn by himself (nehphesh)” (Jeremiah 51:14)

29. “Two persons (nehphesh)” (Jeremiah 52:29)

30. “And five persons (nehphesh)” (Jeremiah 52:30)

31. “The loathing of thy person (nehphesh)” (Ezekiel 16:5)

32. “Cut off many persons (nehphesh) (Ezekiel 17:17)

33. “They traded the persons (nehphesh) of man” (Ezekiel 27:13)

34. “Take any person (nehphesh)” (Ezekiel 33:6)

35. “The mighty deliver himself (nehphesh)” (Amos 2:14)

36. “Deliver himself (nehphesh)” (Amos 2:15)

37. “God hath sworn by himsel(nehphesh)” (Amos 6:8)

38. “A dead body (nehphesh)” (Haggai 2:13)

39.  “If any one (nehphesh)” (Leviticus 4:27)

40.  “Any living thing (nehphesh)” (Leviticus 11:10)

41.  “And slayeth him (nehphesh)” (Deuteronomy 22:26)

42.  “Setteth his (nehphesh) heart” (Deuteronomy 24:15)

43.  “At thine  (nehphesh) own pleasure” (Deuteronomy 23:24)

44.  “Whosoever killeth any person (nehphesh)”  (Joshua 20:9)

45.  “All the persons (nehphesh)”  (I Samuel 23:22)

46. “All that thine (nehphesh) heart” (2 Samuel 3:21)

47. “Every man (nehphesh)” (2 Kings 12:4)

48. “They (nehphesh) die in youth” (Job 36:14)

49. “Of his (nehphesh) heart’s desire” (Psalms 10:3)

50. “My deadly (nehphesh) enemies” (Psalms 17:9)

51.  “Unto to the will (nehphesh) of” (Psalms 27:12)

52. “So would we (nehphesh) have it” (Psalms 35:25)

53. “Unto to the will (nehphesh) of his enemies” (Psalms 35:41)

54. “Why are you (nehphesh) cast down” (Psalms 42:5, 42:11, 45:5)

55. “Asking meat for their (nehphesh) lust” (Psalms 78:18)

56. He (nehphesh) was laid in iron” (Psalms105: 18)

57. “I have behaved and quieted myself (nehphesh)” (Psalms 131:2)

58. “Knows his (nehphesh) own bitterness” (Proverbs 14:10)

59. “As he thinketh in his (nehphesh) heart” (Proverbs 23:7)

60. “At her (nehphesh) pleasure” (Jeremiah 2:24)

61. “At their (nehphesh) pleasure” (Jeremiah 34:16)

62. “Should he slay you (nehphesh)” (Jeremiah 40:15)

63. “With a despiteful heart (nehphesh)” (Ezekiel 25:15)

64. “With a bitterness of heart (nehphesh)” (Ezekiel 27:31)

     Nehphesh is translated “mind” 15 times. Nehphesh is translate “life” and “lives” many times referring to living and dead mortal being, both to persons and to animals.

     Summary. About one-third of the times nehphesh in the Old Testament is translated soul, and psukee is translated soul in the New Testament, are both associated with the destruction and death of a soul (nehphesh). This is an insoluble problem for those that believe today's theology, which says there is a soul that cannot die. 

     Since the word “soul” has a meaning in todays English that is not in the Hebrew word “nehphesh,” or the Greek word “psuche” the question is, “is soul a true translation, or was it the translators changing the Bible by putting their Platonic and Hellenized philosophy into the Bible?” The doctrine of an immortal soul did not exist in the Old Testament, and nehphesh would not have been understood to be a “soul,” not unto the Greek doctrine was brought into the church by a few of the so called “church fathers,” but mostly by the Dark Age Roman Catholic Church; they were not called “church fathers” in their day, but were called this by the Roman Catholic Church, probably to justify the use of “father” the way Catholics use it, and to make the writing of the “church fathers” have more authority. The translators of the King James Version still believed this pagan doctrine and they translated mostly from the Roman Catholic Latin Bible and changed the word of God in many places, but think goodness most translations have now partly corrected many of the changes that they made.

     NEW KING JAMES VERSION STUDY EDITION 1990, page 955. “The Hebrew word for soul has many meanings and seldom (some would say never) equals what English-speaking Christians man mean by the term.” Most English speaking Christians understand “soul” to be an immaterial, deathless something in a person that will forever fly away from the person it was in at the death of the person it had been in.

    INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPEDIA, "Not, however, to dwell on the fact that many peoples have no clear conception of an immaterial 'soul' in the modern sense (the Egyptians, e. g. distinguished several parts, the Ka, the Ba, etc., which survived death; often the surviving self is simply a ghostly resemblance of the earthly self, nourished with food, offerings, etc.), there is the more serious consideration that the state into which the surviving part is supposed to enter at death is anything but a state which can be described as 'life,' or worthy to be dignified with the name 'immortality.' It is a state peculiar to 'death;' in most cases, shadowy, inert, feeble, dependent, joyless; a state to be dreaded and shrunk from, not one to be hoped for. If, on the other hand, as in the hope of immortality among the nobler heathen, it is conceived of, as for some, a state of happiness–the clog of the body being shaken off–this yields the idea, which has passed into so much of our modern thinking, of an 'immortality of the soul,' of an imperishableness of the spiritual part, sometimes supposed to extend backward as well as forward; an inherent indestructibility." From the article "Immortal; Immortality." Also from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "We are influenced always more or less by the Greek, Platonic idea that the body dies, yet the soul is immortal. Such an idea is utterly contrary to the Israelite consciousness and is nowhere found in the Old Testament." From the article "Death," page 812. "Soul, like spirit, has various shades of meaning in the O.T., which may be summarized as follows, 'Soul,' 'living being,' 'life,' 'self,' 'person,' 'desire,' 'appetite,' 'emotion' and 'passion'... NEHPHESH OR SOUL CAN ONLY DENOTE THE INDIVIDUAL LIFE WITH A MATERIAL ORGANIZATION OR BODY." Page 2837. "For the Hebrews a person was a unity, not to be divided into body, soul, and spirit as the Greeks did." Page 592.

     JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA, "The belief that the soul continues its existence after the dissolution of the body is a matter of philosophical or theological speculation rather than of simple faith, AND IS ACCORDINGLY, NOWHERE TAUGHT IN THE HOLY SCRIPTURE...The belief in the immortality of the soul came to the Jews from contact with Greek thought and chiefly through the philosophy of Plato, its principal exponent, who was led to it through Orphic and Dleusinian mysteries in which Babylonian and Egyptian views were strangely blended." Article-"Immortality of the Soul," 1925.

     The concept of punishment after death is not in the Old Testament. The Law given through Moses deals only with punishment in this life and has no provisions for punishment after death.

     C. R. GRESHAM commenting on 1 Corinthians 15:51-52. "Paul is pointing out that the resurrection truth which he is revealing was partially, if not wholly, hidden to past generations. We must take this seriously and not read New Testament revelation back into the Old Testament accounts…It is generally conceived that there is little about resurrection or after-life in what the Jews called the Torah...and the Former Prophets...Death is seen as the end, the destruction of human existence," page 25. "Man's soul is primarily his vitality, his life, not some separate part of a person that has independent existence and an immortal nature, God's spirit (His breath, His power) creates and sustains all living things (Ps 33:6; 104:29-30), even the human spirit (Zech 12:1), but never is man's soul or spirit seen as an immortal part of man surviving death.” Page 40. "The widespread misunderstanding that the New Testament teaches the immortality of the soul...If one recognizes that death and eternal life in the New Testament are always bound up the Christ-event, then it becomes clear that for the first Christians the soul is not intrinsically immortal, but rather became so only through the resurrection of Jesus Christ," page 275, "What The Bible Says About Resurrection," The College Press, 1983, (Christian Church).

     INTERPRETER’S DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE, “No biblical text authorizes the statement that the soul is separated from the body at the moment of death.” Volume 1, Article “Death,” page 802, 1960. “The word ‘soul’ in English…coming from philosophical Greek (Platonism)…In the OT it never means the immortal soul, but it is essentially the life principle, or the living being, or the self as the subject of appetite, and emotion.” Volume 4, Article “Soul,” 1960.

     The belief of Socrates, Plato, and the Greeks was that when a soul is freed from the person it was in, that freed soul would live forever without the dead person that it had been imprisoned in, and it would be reincarnated and live in other living being, one being after another unto each one of them died, not that souls would be eternally tormented by God. If, as Plato, the Greeks, etc. taught, that a soul is a separate “living being” from the person it is in, then it would make it unjust for a soul to be endlessly tormented for what the dead person had did. It would be like making Bill be judged and punished for what John did.

     This Greek philosophy that says there is a soul that lives in the body of a person unto the death of the person was what a few of the “church fathers” had been taught and believed, the background from which they came. Tertullian, one of the first of the “church fathers” to teach this philosophy was truthful about from where he had learned it. He said, "For some things are known even by nature, the immortality of the soul, for instance, is held by many...I may use, therefore, the opinion of a Plato, when he declares, 'Every soul is immortal.'" Ante–Nicene Fathers, Volume 3, page 1916. By the time of the translation of the King James Version this heathen doctrine was believed by the Roman Catholic Church and by most Protestants, but had been changed from Plato’s belief that all souls are freed and go on to live in other being, was changed to only a few souls to live in a better place, but most souls, after being freed from the persons they were in by the death of the persons will go to endless torment in Hell; the “Hell” part was added by the Roman Catholic Church to what was taught by Plato, it was changed from what was believed by Plato that after the death of the persons all souls that was trapped in then would be in the same shadowy place unto reincarnated into other living being; Hell had not been invented by the Roman Catholic Church in Plato’s time.

     Neither “nehphesh” nor “psuche” are used with the qualifying words aionios, immoral, undying, endless, or everlasting, but in today’s preaching these words are continually added to “soul.”

     The Egyptians might have been the first to believe in a dual nature of a person. They believed that death was a door to a new form of life for a soul, which may be higher or lower life, depending on how good or bad a person was that a soul had been in. They believed the body was evil and a prison to a soul. They built the pyramids and other tombs and put the things in them they thought would be needed by a soul after the death of the person. The death of the parson was a friend to them that freed a soul from the evil body it was in; but it was the Greeks (Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato) who adopted this Egyptian belief of the dual nature of a person and father developed the philosophy of the immortal soul. Some of the church fathers were schooled in and believed in this Greek philosophy, and were only partly converted. They, after greatly expanding on the teaching of Plato, brought the Greek philosophy into the church, which led to the apostasy in the Dark Age. Unconditional immortality is the foundation of the doctrine of Hell. If a person had an unseen immortal soul in them that would not die when the person died, there had to be a place to put the deathless souls after they were freed from the evil persons they had been imprisoned in for in the Dark Age it was no longer believed that souls would be reincarnated into another living being; therefore, a place for souls to go came into being without a resurrection or a judgment. The New Testament teaching of the resurrection of the dead became unneeded and of little or no importance for it had came to be believed that  when souls would leave the dead person they had been in they would go on to eternal live without ever being in another living being, would go to wherever they were going without the resurrection.

     In the Greek philosophy a soul never dies; only the person dies, freeing a deathless soul from the dead person to live without the person. Christ taught the resurrection of mankind from their graves, not the Greek "immaterial, invisible part of man" (W. E. Vine) that never dies. The Greeks did not believe in or need a resurrection, or a savior, or a redeemer; these would not fit into their belief. They believed in an immortal soul; therefore, there could be no death for any soul. The Greek philosophy of an immortal soul is opposed to the teaching of Christ on the resurrection. The immortal soul doctrine was believed by most pagan religions in the time of Paul, and when he was before Agrippa, he asked, "Why is it considered incredible among you people if God does raise the dead?" (Acts 26:8). To Plato and Agrippa, the resurrection of the dead person would have been a step backward. It would put a soul that had been freed from its imprisonment in a person back into the prison it had been freed from.

*   The Greek and heathen belief that the immortal soul indestructible demands that a soul cannot die, but must be alive forever somewhere.

*   The resurrection as taught by Christ demands that a person be dead, if not, there cannot be a resurrection.

     Read the history of the world and see what the religions of the world believed and you will find nothing about Hell, there is not one thing about Hell in any of the words religions before the Dark Age Roman Church. THERE IS NOTHING, HELL WAS UNKNOWN OF BEFORE THE DARK AGE; then it was a copy of the belief of many of the pagans of soul having some kind of life or just a barely existent, which some believed to be in an under ground chamber unto souls could be reincarnated into new bodies, but with the reincarnation part removed and endless torment by God added, but NOT EVEN ONE OF THE RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD BELIEVED A SOUL WOULD BE ETERNALLY TORMENTED AND NOT REINCARNATION. When they removed the reincarnation part that the pagans believed there had to be a place for the deathless souls to be and the unground chamber of many of the pagans was named Hell; then the torment was added to scare people into being a Roman Catholic. It was not unto the end of the eighteen century and the nineteen century that Hell was moved from an under ground chamber to wherever Hell is now believed to be.

     “A HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE SOUL” by D. M. Canright. Although there are a some things in this book that I do not believe to be right, it is good on the history of the origin of the belief in a soul being in a person. Free at:

     The resurrection will be a calling back to life of the whole person God created, not a calling back to life of a deathless something that is a difference being than the dead person that it had been imprisoned in. If the Greek doctrine of an immortal soul that cannot die, which is believed by many today were true, then the resurrection of Christ and our resurrection would be pointless even if it were possible to raise a dead soul that is not dead.


Immortality --------- versus - A resurrection to life

Death a friend ------ versus - Death is "the last enemy"

Plato, A soul is immortal| If there is no resurrection

therefore only “it”      | death is the end of all

is alive after death     | life 1 Corinthians 15:14-23

Plato, Only the body dies| "Then they also that are

freeing a soul to higher | fallen asleep in Christ

life without a body      | have perished" 1 Cor. 15:18

Only some inter something| A person who in Christ 

that is in person is     | will put on immortality,

immortal, not the person | not something in a person

Souls that were in all   | Christ is "the first

the dead are now alive   | born from the dead"

Souls cannot perish      | Souls (psukee) will perish

Souls cannot be destroyed| in Gehenna Matthew 10:28

     Plato's deathless immortal soul and Christ's resurrection of the dead are not compatible, both cannot be. One can be true, but not both; they are alien and complete opposite to each other. The Egyptians and Greek immortal soul doctrine that was believed by Plato is a total rejection of the teaching of Christ on the resurrection of a person to life at the second coming of Christ. To believe Plato is to reject Christ.

*   Plato taught an immortal, immaterial soul that was better off after the death of the person it had been imprisoned in.

*   Paul taught there is no life after death without the resurrection of the dead person.

     The two are completely incompatible; it is difficult to understand why many say they believe the Bible when they choose pagan Greek philosophy over the Bible.

     Paul and Plato used the same Greek words, but not in the same way. Immortal, immortality, indestructible, never dying was used by Plato, and are used by many today to describe a soul that exist after the death of the person it once was in, but in the Old or New Testament these words are never used referring to any lost person, or to anything that had been in a person. The expression "immortal soul" is very common in the writing of the pagan philosophers and by today's preachers, but is not found in the Bible.

PAUL                     |PLATO AND MANY TODAY SAY

Persons can die          |an immortal soul cannot die

Persons can be dead      |no death for a immortal soul

Persons can be destroyed |an immortal soul cannot be destroyed

Persons are corruptible  |all souls are now incorruptible

Persons are mortal       |all souls are now immortal

Persons can perish       |a soul cannot ever perish

     What Plato and the Greeks thought about there being a soul in a person, and that soul would exist with some kind of life after the person it was in had died is not the word of God; to those that believe the Bible, the Greek immortal soul that has some kind of life after the death of the person it had been in is not any part of the Christian faith.

     HENRY CONSTABLE, "In the very terms in which the punishment of the wicked is asserted in the New Testament. (1) Where the latter says a soul shall die, Plato says it shall not die. (2) Where the latter says it shall be destroyed, Plato says it shall not be destroyed. (3) Where the latter says it shall perish and suffer corruption, Plato says it shall not perish and is incorruptible…But the discussion of the question was not confined to the school of Plato or to his times. Every school of philosophy took it up, whether to confirm Plato's view, or to deny it, or to heap ridicule upon it. All the phrases we have been discussing from the New Testament had been explained, turned over and over, handled with all the power of the masters of language, presented in every phase, so that of their sense there could be no doubt, nor could there be any one ignorant of their sense before Jesus spoke, or an Evangelist or Apostle wrote. The subject had not died out before the days of Christ. It never could and never will die out. In every city of the Roman world were schools of Grecian taught in the days of the Apostles. In every school the question before us was discussed in the phrases and language of the New Testament.” "Duration and Nature of Future Punishment," 1871.

      ROMAN CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, "Plato established the basic Western tradition on this topic by defining the soul as the spiritual part of the human that survived death." 1991.

     OSCR CULLMANN, “He (Christ) must indeed be the very one who in His death conquers death itself. He cannot obtain this victory by simply living on as an immortal soul, thus fundamentally not dying. He can conquer death only by actually dying, by betaking Himself to the sphere of death, the destroyer of life…Whoever wants to conquer death must die, he must really cease to live–not simply live on as an immortal soul…For Socrates and Plato…the body is indeed bad and should not live on. And that part, which is to live on, the soul, does not die at all …therefore it is death…that must be conquered by the resurrection …the whole thinking of the New Testament is governed by the belief in the resurrection. Belief in the immortality of the soul is not belief in a revolutionary event. Immortality, in fact, is only a negative assertion; the soul does not die, but simply lives on. Resurrection is a positive assertion, the whole man, who has really died, is recalled to life…The Greek doctrine of immortality and the Christian hope in the resurrection differ so radically because Greek thought has such an entirely different interpretation of creation.” “Immortality Of The Soul Or Resurrection Of The Dead?” 1958.

     Many believe that in the afterlife there will be nothing more than a collection of disembodied spirits or souls that will be just as alive and just the same from the day of birth of the persons these soul were in as these souls will be after they leave the persons after their death. Death and the resurrection are out of step with the belief of Plato and Greek philosophy.

     That there is something in a person and that something being deathless is a philosophy of man that Paul warned about (Colossians 2:8). An immortal soul was copied from heathen philosophy and superstition. Those who believe we now have "an immortal soul" get their belief from Greek philosophy, but are inconstant and self-contradicting; they say a soul cannot die, but it needs a Savior to save it from “the wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23). If we were born with an immortal soul, it would have no need for Christ to save it from the death it cannot die. Christianity did not destroy the pagan doctrine of Egypt and Greece; in the Dark Age it was adopted by the Roman Church.


*      If a soul is immortal (deathless) then Christ has not been raised (1

Corinthians 15:13-15).

*     If a soul is immortal (deathless) we are false witnesses, the dead will not be raised (1 Corinthians 15:15).

*     If a soul is immortal (deathless) our faith is vain and we are yet in our sins (1 Corinthians 15:17).

*     If a soul is immortal (deathless) and it will live without the person, no Christians will be raised from the dead, dead persons are dead forever (1 Corinthians 15:18-19). The immortal soul doctrine leaves the person forever with no life after their death.

     Death is the enemy (1 Corinthians 15:26). It is the destruction of the life given by God. It is not the liberator of an immortal soul from a person, as Plato believed it to be. It is death that must be conquered by the resurrection. When we understand that death is really death, not another kind of life for an immortal living something that has no substance that is in a person, the resurrection is all-important. Without a resurrection we can do any thing that we want to do for this life is all there is (1 Corinthians 15:32). Our only hope is the resurrection, and without it there will be no life of any kind for us after our death. Plato's immortal, deathless soul needs no resurrection; DEATHLESS SOULS CANNOT BE RESURRECTED FROM THE DEAD.

*     "Set your hope perfectly on the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ" (1 Peter 1:12). It is at the resurrection that we "shall receive the crown of glory that fades not away" (1 Peter 5:4).

*     "Be patient; therefore, brethren, until the coming of the Lord” (James 4:7-8). As the farmer is patient unto the harvest to receive his reward, the believers are to be patient unto the coming of Christ to receive their reward.

*     "It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body" (1 Corinthians 15:43), it is not the natural body that will be raised. "We (persons, not souls) shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump, for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible.” Dead persons will be raised from the dead with a completely new spiritual body, not already living souls that have no bodies raised from the dead still with no bodies (1 Corinthians 15:52).

*     "Beloved, now are we children of God, and it is not yet made manifest what we shall be. We know that, when he shall be manifested, we shall be like him; for we shall see him even as he is" (1 John 3:2). Every one knows what kind of body we now have, but no one knows what we shall be after the resurrection; it is “we” (persons) that do not know what “we” (our bodies) shall be after “we” are resurrected; if there were a soul now in a person, that soul would be the same bodiless being while the person is alive, the same bodiless being after the person is dead, the same bodiless being after the coming of Christ; if there were a deathless soul, how could a deathless soul that we are told that it is thoughts only not know what it now is and what it shall continue to be after the death of the person it had been in? Would it not know what its own thoughts were?

     The wrath of God will be "in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God" (Romans 2:5), not wrath at death before the Judgment Day, and not eternal wrath after the Judgment Day is over. On that day, it will be rendered "to them that by patience in well doing seek for glory and honor and incorruption, eternal life” (Romans 2:8), not to souls that now have endless life that are believed to be in all that will be given endless life. The judgment will be "in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men" (Romans 2:16), not at death. It is the Judgment Day when "we (not souls) shall all stand before the judgment-seat of God” (Romans 14:10). It is the day that the Lord will judge all. "Wherefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and make manifest the counsels of the hearts" (1 Corinthians 4:5, also, Ephesians 4:30).

*     "And to wait for his Son from heaven" (1 Thessalonians 1:10). Death will not take anyone to Heaven without waiting for the Resurrection of the dead at the second coming of Jesus.

*     When the Lord shall descend from Heaven, them that have fallen asleep in Jesus, "the dead in Christ shall rise first; then WE that are alive, that are left, shall together with them be caught up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air, and so shall WE ever be with the Lord" (1 Thessalonians 4:17). Our hope is to be raised from our sleep at the coming of Christ, not come back from living in Heaven, or living in Abraham's bosom.

*     Paul says he will receive a "crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give to ME at that day; and not to ME only, but also to all them that have loved his appearing." (2 Timothy 4:8).

     The Bible speaks of “us,” “we,” and “you” that shall be with the Lord after the Judgment Day, the person, you will be resurrected, not a soul that once had been in the dead you, not a soul that many believe has already gone on to be with the Lord, both without the dead person – without the dead you, and without the resurrection.

     The Bible teaching, "The wages of sin is death" (Romans 6:23) leaves no lost person or souls alive to be put anywhere after the judgment and “second death.” The teaching of Christ, that life (everlasting life or immortality) will be given only to those who obey Him makes Hell impossible. Unless Christ gives endless life (immortality) to the lost, they cannot live forever anywhere. The Greek teaching of an immortal soul must be made to stand, and the teaching of Christ that He will give life only to those who come to Him must be removed from the Bible, or there cannot be a Hell.

     Socrates drinks hemlock and died with a smile on his face because he thought he was freeing a soul to leave his dead body and live with the gods, for a soul that was in him to live free of being in him. Christ "sweats as it was great drops of blood" (Luke 22:44). Death is the enemy of man; it destroys him by taking his life away, and only the resurrection will free us from death, and it will give us back the life death takes. In death there is no life any place for anyone before the resurrection. The resurrection is not deathless souls coming back from Heaven or Hell to be judged and then going back to Heaven or Hell; the resurrection of dead persons is our only hope of life after our death. Without the resurrection "then they (Christians that had died) also that are fallen asleep in Christ have perished" (1 Corinthians 15:18). The Greek philosophy of immortal souls that found its way into the Roman church in the Dark Age says souls that have left the dead persons they were in have not perished, but that souls have life without the need of the resurrection of dead persons; if there were an immortal soul that is the only thing that cannot perish, then the persons who “are fallen asleep in Christ” have forever perished; how could Paul have been so wrong?

     “For since by MAN came death, by a MAN also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive” (1 Corinthians 15:”21-22); from Adam to the second coming of Christ all persons die, the same all persons that die will be resurrected at the coming of Christ. If, as we are told, a soul is the only thing that will ever be immortal, and that a soul is already immortal and cannot die, it cannot be “made alive.” The pagan deathless soul doctrine makes this passage be nonsense.

*  “By man came death…in Adam all die” (1 Corinthians 15:21-22).

*  “By man came the resurrection of the dead…in Christ all shall be made alive” (1 Corinthians 15:21-22).

     By Adam death came to all persons; all persons literally die. By Christ the same all persons that are dead will be “made alive” by the resurrection of the dead persons; neither persons nor souls that are not dead could not be resurrected; the undead cannot be resurrected from the dead.

     As the results of the pagan immortal soul doctrine there came into existent many other false doctrines, Hellfire, Purgatory, worship of Mary and saints, etc. The Protestant Reformation was largely a reaction to medieval superstitious beliefs, and to Purgatory that is a Roman Catholic intermediate state of temporal punishment where they thought the souls that were not good enough to go to Heaven, and not bad enough to go to Hell; in the Church in the Dark Age this was believed to be almost all souls that had left the dead persons that they had been in. The priests would have the loved ones pay to have him shorten the time souls were in the Catholic Purgatory. Selling indulgences and paying to reduce the time deathless souls that had left the dead loved ones would spend in Purgatory was rejected by the Reformation, as was many other beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church; but both the Greek dual nature of a person and the doctrine of Hell that were brought in by the Roman Catholic Church were both retained in the Protestant Reformation. Calvin believed that a soul did not sleep, and that a soul goes to Heaven or Hell as soon as it leaves the person it had been in; therefore, a soul that is not dead could not be resurrection from the dead.

     The Westminster Confession says, "Souls of the righteous...are received unto the highest heavens...soul of the wicked are cast into Hell."

     Different characteristics of a person, not different parts of a person that one part can live without any other part; a person looked at from different points of view.

BODY, Flesh and blood.

LIFE MISTRANSLATED SOUL, A person is a living being, the body plus the breath of life is a living being.

MINDIf the intellectual part of a person is his mind. A soul is believed tp be all mind, to have its own thoughts that our mind does not have?

HEART, The most commonly used characteristic of a person. (Genesis 6:5; Judges; 16:15, 17, 18, 20; Matthew 5:8; Luke 12:34; Romans 10:10; Hebrews 3:10). The heart is used in the place of the mind for the thing that the mind does, the seat of intellect, affection, understanding, and will; not the part of the body that pumps blood. (Matthew 13:15; 15:19; Mark 7:19; Luke 6:45; 9:47; Acts 8:21; 8:37; 28:27; Romans 10:9; 10:10; 1 Corinthians 2:9; 7:37; Hebrews 3:10; 4:12; 1 John 3:20-21). Has not the things said about the heart been transferred to a soul by those who believe a soul is an immaterial, immortal being that has no substance?

     The whole person dies, the whole person is buried, the whole person is resurrected for judgment, and the whole resurrected person that is a faithful believer will live with Christ for all the many ages to come.

*   The whole person dies and the whole person is buried.

*  Aaron died and there he was buried” (Deuteronomy 10:6).

* “There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah, there they buried Isaac” (Genesis 49:31).

*  “David that he both died and was buried and his tomb is with us to this day” (Acts 2:29). David died and is still in his tomb, not just a part of David died.

*   It is because the whole person is asleep, because the whole person is actually dead that the whole person must be resurrected from the dead, not whatever an undead, immaterial, deathless something is that had been in a person unto the death of the person.

*  Stephen “fell asleep” (Acts 7:59).

* “David slept with his fathers and was buried” (1 Kings 2:10).

*   The whole saved person will be raised from their sleep and live with Christ, not Plato’s Greek pagan soul that was believed that a soul will never be dead, that a soul will never be in the tombs or graves, or that a soul will never be raised from the dead.

* ALL that are in the TOMBS shall hear his voice, and shall come forth” (John 6:28-29). Graves (plural, many graves) in King James Version, but we are told by those that believe in souls that souls are never in “graves.”

* “And I will raise HIM up at the last day (John 6:54), will raise “HIM,” the sleeping person, not will raise “it” from a deathless dead.

     ASHLEY S. JOHNSON, founder and president of the Johnson Bible College, “Generally the word ‘soul’ in the ordinary version should be life.” “The Resurrection And The Future Life,” page 336, Knoxville, 1913.

     "MAN BECAME A LIVING BEING" (Genesis 1:26). "Then God said, 'Let Us make MAN in Our image,'" not, "Let Us make a soul in Our Image and put this soul in MAN unto the death of the MAN that We put it in;" it is MAN that is in the image of God, nothing is said about the image of a soul, nothing about there being a soul. "Then the Lord formed MAN of dust from the ground and breathed into HIS nostrils the breath of life; and MAN became a living being” (Genesis 2:7). Not breathed into the body an immortal, undying, deathless, no substance soul, but breathed into “man” the breath of life, which both men and animals have.  Not a body plus an immortal deathless soul; it was the man himself that became "a living being," not two living beings, not a body being (a person) with an invisible soul living being that is living in the person. How can the breath of life in your nose (breathing) be an immortal something that dose not breathe? The same “man” that was created “in the image of God” is the same “man” that breathes.” It is not an immaterial something in “man” that does not breathe that is in the image of God.

     The body of dust plus the breath of life = a living soul (nehphesh–a living being, either man or animal, Genesis 2:7). The breath of life without the body would not be a person or animal; it would not be an immortal living being, not a nehphesh. ALL living creatures, whether they are animals or sea-dwelling creatures are souls (nehpheshs–living beings). All life comes from God and all life returns to God. The body plus the breath of life makes a living being (a nehpheshs), makes a living person or animal.


Creation–body made of dust–breath of life from God = a living person (a living nehpheshs) (Genesis 2:7).

Death–breath of life returns to God–body returns to dust = a dead person (a dead nehpheshs) (Ecclesiastes 12:7).

Genesis 2:7

1. Body “formed of the dust from the ground.”

2. “Breathed into his nostrils of the body the breath of life.”

Psalm 104:29

1. God “takes away their breath.”

2. They “return to their earth.”

Psalm 146:4 

1. God takes away the breath. 

2. “He returns to this earth.” 

     God formed MAN, not merely the body of man; it was MAN that was formed from the dust of the ground. It is MAN, not an invisible something that was put in the MAN that is not the MAN, not a deathless something that has no substance that is in the image of God. After Adam was put out of the garden he was still in the image of God, mankind is still in the image of God. If Adam was created innate immortal, then what was the purpose of the tree of life? If there was an immortal soul that was in Adam and that soul was created not subject to death, then the tree of life could have had no purpose; an immortal soul that cannot die would live forever with or without the tree of life, would live if it did eat, or would live if it did not eat of the tree of life. It was Adam that could and did die for eating of the forbidden fruit, not a deathless soul that could not die; an immaterial soul could not eat of the forbidden fruit, or could not die for eating of the forbidden fruit, which if there were an immaterial soul it could not eat material fruit.

     Summary - The Bible says, “Man BECAME a living soul” is changed to, “Man had a soul put in him.” There is a world of difference in (1) a person being a BEING a soul, (2) and a person HAVING a soul put in them; it is two completely difference gospels. Both man and animals ARE a living soul; neither persons nor animals HAVE a soul that is living in them. If the breath of life in his nostrils in Genesis 2:7 makes a person have something that is immortal (soul) living in him or her that cannot die, then "all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life" in Genesis 7:22 would also prove all beasts, birds, and fish have the same immortal something in them that cannot die, but both persons (nehphesh) and beasts (nehphesh) died in the flood.


Not God has a soul living in Him

     “Moreover, I will make My dwelling among you, and My soul (nehphesh) will not reject you” (Leviticus 26:11). “I then will destroy your high places, and cut down your incense altars, and heap your remains on the remains of your idols; for My soul (nehphesh) shall abhor you” (Leviticus 26:30).

    I know of no one that believes God has “an invisible, no substance” something in Him that can exist apart from Himself. His soul (nehphesh) is His person, His being–life, not an immortal soul living in the immortal God, just as a nehphesh (mistranslated soul) of a person or animal is the life (the living being) of the person or animal, not an immortal being that is in them.


     Nehphesh–a living creature–animals are a living being, not animals HAVE souls. They do not HAVE an immaterial, invisible, no substance, deathless something living in them; they ARE a living being. In Genesis 1:20; 1:21; 1:24; 1:30, most translations try to hide this. WHY? Why is the same word translated "living creature" when used referring to animals, and the same word is changed to "soul" when it is used referring to a person? There is no excuse or defense for it; it is a deliberate attempt by the translators, who did not believe God's word as it is, to mislead their readers; all Bible teachers should point this out to all they teach (James 3:1). If a "living soul" (nehphesh) is a deathless living something that is in a person, then bugs, all sea creatures, all birds, and all animals have deathless souls. In Genesis "Living soul" is used much more of these living beings than it is of man.

     Passages in which nehphesh is speaking of animals being souls-living being, but it is deliberately hid from the English readers that the word nehphesh–the word that they mistranslated souls is used.

1. Genesis 1:20, “Then God said, Let the waters swarm with swarms of living souls (nehpheshs, used referring to animals)”

2. Genesis 1:21, “And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living soul (nehphesh, used referring to animalsthat moved wherewith the waters swarmed.”

3. Genesis 1:24, “And God said, Let the earth bring forth living souls (nehpheshs, used referring to animalsafter their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind.”

4. Genesis 1:30, “And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and to every thing that moves on the earth which has life (nehphesh, used referring to animals).   

5. Genesis 2:19, “And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature (nehpheshs, used referring to animals), that was its name.”

6. Genesis 9:10, "And with ever living creature (nehpheshs, used referring to animalsthat is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you."

7. Genesis 9:12, “This is the covenant which I am making between Me and you and ever living creature (nehpheshs, used referring to animalsthat is with you.”

8. Genesis 9:15, “And I will remember My covenant, which is between Me and you and ever living creature (nehpheshs, used referring to both man and animalsof all flesh.”

9. Genesis 9:16, “When the bow is in the cloud, then I will look upon it, to remember the everlasting covenant between God and ever living creature (nehpheshs, used referring to both man and animalsof all flesh that is on the earth.”

10. Leviticus 11:10, “But whatever is in the seas and in the rivers, that do not have fins and scales among all the teeming life of the water, and among all the living creatures (nehpheshs, referring to animalsthat are in the water, they are detestable things to you.”

 11. Leviticus 11:46, “This is the law regarding the animal, and the bird, and every living thing (nehpheshs, used referring to animalsthat swarms on the earth.”

12. Leviticus 17:11, “For the life (nehphesh, used referring to an animalof the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls (lives–nehpheshs, used referring to men); for it is the blood by reason of the life (nehphesh, used referring to animalsthat makes atonement.” The exact same word in the same sentence in the Hebrew (nehphesh) is translated life two times when referring to animals and is translated soul only when it is referring to mankind!

13. Leviticus 22:11, “But if the priest buy any souls  (nehpheshs, used referring to animals that are to be used as food) with his money, he shall eat of it, and he that is born in his house, they shall eat of his meat” King James Version.

14. Leviticus 24:18, “And the one who takes the life (nehphesh, used referring to animalsof an animal shall make it good, life (nehphesh, used referring to animalsfor life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals).” “And he that killest a beast (nehphesh) shall make it good, beast (soul nehphesh) for beast (soul–nehphesh),” King James Version.

15. Numbers 31:28, "One soul (nehphesh life, used referring to both man and animals) of five hundred, of the persons and of the beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep."

16. Job 41:1, Leviathan,” (nehphesh, used referring to an animal) is used six times in the Bible, probably a crocodile (Job 41:21). From over 870 times nehphesh is used, this is the only time nehphesh is translated breath in the Kings James Version. After all, they could not have a crocodile, a sea monster, or whatever this nehphesh was having an "immortal soul" for then they would have to put it’s soul in Heaven, Hell, or Abraham’s bosom for a soul in an immortal crocodile could never die, and, according to the theology of many, if there were a soul in a crocodile it would have to be somewhere for all eternity.

17. Ezekiel 47:9, “And it will come about that every living creature (nehpheshs, used referring to animalswhich swarms in every place where the river goes.”

18. Leviticus 17:14, Genesis 9:4 "For the life (nehphesh, used referring to man and to animalsof every creature is the blood of it."

19. Deuteronomy 12:23, “Only be sure not to eat the blood, for the blood is the life (nehphesh, used referring to animals), and you shall not eat the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animalswith the flesh.”

20. Job 12:10, "In whose hand is the life (nehphesh, used referring to man and to animalsof every living thing, and the breath of all mankind?"

21.  Proverbs 12:10, "A righteous man has regard for the life (nehphesh, used referring to animalsof his beast."

22. And many more, but if this does not convict anyone that all living being are a soul nothing will. Notices how the translators tried to hide this from their readers.

     Many believe, "The living soul" in Genesis 2:7 is the one distinctive thing that makes a person different from an animal, but if this makes a person have a deathless soul in them, there is no way around all living things having deathless souls in them. In the above twenty-one passages bugs, birds, fish, persons, are all nehpheshs, all are "living beings," but they are not a deathless, immaterial something. 

     ERDMANN DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE, "Far from referring simply to one aspect of a person, 'soul' refers to the whole person." Page 1245.

     HOLMAN BIBLE DICTIONARY, "A human being is a totality of being, not a combination of various parts and impulses. According to the Old Testament understanding, a person is not a body, which happens to possess a soul. Instead, a person is a living soul...Because of God’s breath of life; the man became 'a living being' (Gen. 2:7). A person thus is a complete totality, made up of human flesh, spirit (best understood as "the life-force'), and nephesh (best understood as ‘the total self' but often translated as 'soul')." Page 61.

     INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPEDIA, "There is not dualism in the sense of separation, as though there could be full man either as body alone or as soul alone...together they make up the one man." Volume 1, page 134.

     HASTINGS BIBLE DICTIONARY, “Soul is throughout the great part of the Bible simply the equivalent of ‘life’ embodied in living creature.”

     PARKHURST’S LEXICON, “As a noun nephesh has been supposed to signify the spiritual part of man, or what we commonly call his soul. I must for myself confess that I can find no passages where it has undoubtedly this meaning.” Parkhurst was a highly regarded person that believed in an immortal soul, but confessed that he was unable to find his belief in the Old Testament.

     T. PIERCE BROWN, "A consideration of EVERY passage in which these terms are used leads us to the consideration that the term 'soul' is a term that was applied in the Bible to every being that normally has sensory capacities (life), whether or not they have that capacity when the term is used referring to them. For example, one might see a body of a dead person and say, 'That poor soul is dead.' The Bible uses the term that way, even as we do, and it has nothing at all to do with the immorality or mortality of a soul. It simply means that the PERSON (the one who HAD life–soul–sensory capacity) is dead." “Soul and Spirit" Gospel Advocate, June 14, 1979.

     (1). Nehpheshwhen nehphesh is used referring only to animals, it is translated nine different ways in the King James Version.

1  Creature (nehphesh) (Genesis 1:21; 1:24; 2:19; 9:10; 2:12; Leviticus 11:46).

2  Thing (nehphesh) (Leviticus 11:10. Ezekiel 47:9).

3  Life (nehphesh) (Genesis 1:20; 1:30; Leviticus 17:10-14—2 times).

4  The life (nehphesh) (Genesis 9:4; Deuteronomy 12:23; Proverbs 12:10).

5  Beast (nehphesh) (Leviticus 24:18).

6  Soul (nehphesh) (Job 12:10).

7  Breath (nehphesh) (Job 41:21).

8  A fish (nehphesh) (Isaiah 19:10).

9  Her (nehphesh) (Jeremiah 2:24).

     (2). Nehpheshwhen it is used referring to BOTH to animals and to man, it is translated in three different ways.

1  Creature (nehphesh) (Genesis 9:15; 9:16).

2  Life (nehphesh) (Leviticus 17:11; 17:14).

3  Soul (nehphesh) (Numbers 31:28).

     (3). Nehphesh, when it has the animal appetites and desires of man, when the material nature of a person is being referred to, nehphesh is translated in five different ways.

1  Pleasure (nehphesh) (Deuteronomy 23:24).

2  Lust (nehphesh) (Psalm 78:18). 

3  Appetite (nehphesh) (Proverbs 23:2; Ecclesiastes 6:7).

4  Greedy (nehphesh) (Isaiah 56:11).

5   Soul (Nehphesh).

Fifteen material–physical things a "nehphesh-person-soul" does.

1.    A soul (nehphesh) dried away (Numbers 11:6).

2.    A soul (nehphesh) can be utterly destroyed (Joshua 10:28).

3.    A soul (nehphesh) can be saved from physical danger by fleeing, by

running away from danger (Jeremiah 51:6).

4.    A soul (nehphesh) can be kept back from the pit–grave, for a short

time (Job 33:18).

5.    A soul (nehphesh) can be delivered from death (Psalm 33:10).

6.    A soul (nehphesh) can longs to eat flesh (Deuteronomy 12:20); a

soul can be hunger (Proverbs 19:15; Proverbs 6:30;) a soul can eat

(Leviticus 7:25).

7.    A soul (nehphesh) can lusts (Deuteronomy 12:15; 12:21; 14:26).

Lusts after (Deuteronomy 12:20).

8.    A soul (nehphesh) can desires (Deuteronomy 14:26; 1 Samuel 2:16).

Can desired figs (Micah 7:1).

9.    A soul (nehphesh) can loathes (Deuteronomy 21:5; Proverbs 27:7).

10. A soul (nehphesh) can abhorred (Job 33:20; Psalm 107:18).

11. A soul (nehphesh) can breaths (1 Kings 20:32).

12. A soul (nehphesh) can be bought and sold with money (Leviticus

22:11; Ezekiel 27:13).

13. A soul (nehphesh) can touch unclean things and be unclean, can

touch bodies of dead persons, dead beast, creeping thing (Leviticus 5:2).

14. A soul (nehphesh) can refused to touch (Job 6:7).

15. A soul (nehphesh) can be dead; can a dead soul can be touched by

living souls? It can be touched by living persons (Numbers 19:11).



     "Men do not despise a thief if he steals to satisfy himself (nehphesh–living being) when he is hungry" (Proverbs 6:30). This is an example of how well the translators hid the fact that this is the same word that they translated soul in other places when they did not want you to see it.

     "I will set my face against that soul (nehphesh–living being) that eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people"(Leviticus 17:10).

     "And you shall say, I will eat flesh, because your soul (nehphesh–living being) desires to eat flesh; you may eat flesh, after all the desire of your soul (nehphesh–living being)" (Deuteronomy 12:20). An immaterial something is eating material flesh!

     "And it shall be as when a hungry man dreams and, behold, he eats; but he awakes, and his soul (nehphesh–living being) is empty; or as when a thirsty man dreams, and behold, he drinks; but he awakes, and, behold, he is faint, and his soul (nehphesh–living being) has appetite" (Isaiah 29:8).


“You shall not eat flesh with its life (nehphesh–living being)” (Genesis 9:4).

“For the life (nehphesh–living being) of the flesh” (Leviticus 17:11; 17:14).

“Those who seek my life (nehphesh–soul-living being)” (Psalm 38:12).

“For those who sought the Child’s life (psukee) are dead’ (Matthew 2:20).

     There are many more passages that show that both nehphesh and psukee are the life of the person or animal, that it is not an immortal something that has it’s own life and lives after the person or animal it had been in is dead.



     If there were a soul and it can die then it cannot be immortal, although this is often hid in many translations, the Bible says over 320 times that a nehphesh (soul), (1) that souls (nehpheshs) can die, (2) that souls can be killed by man, (3) or that souls are already dead.

     If a soul can die, then whatever "nehphesh" is translated into is something that can die. If the many words that "nehphesh" is changed into is something that can die, then a soul cannot be immortal, and a soul can die. To say that "nehphesh" is a soul that is immortal and it cannot die makes the Bible be wrong repeatedly. If a nehphesh is something that is immortal and cannot die, the writers of the Bible did not know it.


1.  Souls (nehpheshs) can die (Numbers 23:10, Ezekiel 18:4, 20, Joshua 11:11).

a.    They smote (killed) all the souls (nehphesh)” King James Version.

b.    “And they struck every person (nehpheshs) who was in it with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there was no one left who breathed” New American Standard Bible.

2.  Souls (nehpheshs) can be murdered (Deuteronomy 12:23; Numbers 35:11-15). 

3,  Souls (nehpheshs) can be killed (Leviticus 24:17). An immortal soul can be killed? "Kills any person" (soul-nehphesh) (Numbers 35:11; 35:15; 35:30-31).

4.  Souls (nehpheshs) can be smote with the sword and utterly destroyed (Joshua 11:11). Can a immortal soul be killed by a sword?

5.  Souls (nehpheshs) can be slain. Can an immortal soul be slain? (Deuteronomy 27:25).

6.  Souls (nehpheshs) can be destroyed. Can an immortal soul be destroyed (Leviticus 23:30)?

7.  Souls (nehpheshs) can be taken away (1 Kings 19:4).

8.  Souls (nehpheshs) can be sought to be killed (Jeremiah 44:30).

9.  Souls (nehpheshs) cannot be kept alive. An immortal soul that cannot die, but it cannot be kept alive? (Psalm 22:29).

10.  Souls (nehpheshs) have blood and can bleed. "The blood of the souls (nehpheshes) of the poor" (Jeremiah 2:34).





      The same word (nehphesh) that many times was translated life or person that will die, or is already dead was changed to an immortal, deathless soul (nehphesh) that many believe is in a person (nehphesh) unto the person’s  (nehphesh) death, but they tell us that “it” (nehphesh) is not the person (nehphesh); nevertheless, according to the King James Version, that deathless, immortal soul (nehphesh) will die just as the mortal person (nehphesh) will die, or that it (nehphesh) is already dead.

1.  “Let us not kill him” (soul–nehphesh). “Let us not take his life(soul–nehphesh) (Genesis 37:21, New American Standard).

2.  "Life (soul–nehphesh) for life (soul–nehphesh).” “Immortal soul for immortal soul?" (Exodus 21:23).

3,  "Any dead body (soul–nehphesh)" (Leviticus 21:11). Any dead soul? Nehphesh is translated “dead body” thirteen times in the King James Version.

4.  And he that killeth a beast shall make it good beast (soul-nephesh) for beast (soul–nehphesh) (Leviticus 24:17 King James Version), “Life (soul–nehphesh) for life (soul–nehphesh) (soul for soul?)"

5.  “Whosoever is defiled by the dead (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 5:2). Defiled by a dead soul?

6.  “He shall come at no dead body (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 6:6 King James Version). "He shall not go near to a dead person (soul-nehpesh)” (New American Standard Version).

7.  “And he that killeth any man (soul–nehphesh) shall surely be put to death. And he that killeth a beast shall make it good beast (soul- nehphesh) for beast (soul–nehphesh) (soul for soul?) (Leviticus 24:17-18 King James Version). "And if a man takes the life (soul–nehphesh) of any human being.” Does anyone believe a person can take the life of an immortal, immaterial, deathless soul?

8.    "Because of a dead person (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 6:11).

9.    "Defiled by the dead body of a man (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 9:6- 7).

10   "Unclean by reason of a dead body (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 9:10).

11.  "He that toucheth the dead body of any man (soul–nehphesh)” (Numbers 19:11). “Whoever touches a human corpse  (soul–nehphesh)" (New International Version).

12.  “Whosoever toucheth the dead body (soul–nehphesh) of any man that is dead” (Numbers 19:13 King James Version). "Anyone who touches a corpse, the body (soul–nehphesh) of a man who has died.” How could anyone touch the corpse of something that has no substance and cannot die? By today’s definition of soul this says an immaterial deathless something is dead, and this immaterial something is touched by a living mortal man. Why did they not translate this “soul”? If they had it would have destroyed their pagan belief.

13.  "Whosoever has killed any person (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 31:19).

14.  “Which killeth any person (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 35:11).

15.  "Everyone that kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 35:15).

16.  "Whoso kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" (Numbers 35:30).

17.  “And slay him (soul–nehphesh)” (Deuteronomy 19:6 King James Version). “And take his life (soul–nehphesh)."

18.  "And strikes him so that he (soul–nehphesh) dies" (Deuteronomy 19:11).

19.  "Life (soul–nehphesh) for life (soul–nehphesh), eye for eye, tooth for tooth” (Deuteronomy 19:21).

20.  "A man rises against his neighbor and murders him (soul–nehphesh)" (Deuteronomy 22:26).

21.  "Cursed be he who takes a bride to slay an innocent person (soul–nehphesh)" (Deuteronomy 27:25).

22.  "And deliver our lives (souls–nehpheshs) from death" (Joshua 2:13). Not, “Save our immortal, deathless souls from death.”

23.  "Who kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" (Joshua 20:9). Not, “Who kills any immortal soul that cannot be killed.”

24.  "That kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" (Joshua 20:3).

25.  "Let me (soul–nehphesh) die(Judges 16:30). Not "Let my soul that cannot die, die anyway?"

26.  "And you lose your life (soul–nehphesh), with the lives (souls–nehpheshs) of your household" (Judges 18:25).

27.  "If you do not save your life (soul–nehphesh) tonight" (1 Samuel 19:11).

28.  "The death of all the persons (souls–nehpheshs) of your father's house" (1 Samuel 22:22).

29.  "He that seeks my life (soul–nehphesh) seeks your life (soul–nehphesh)" (1 Samuel 22:23).

30.  "He is seeking my life (soul–nehphesh)" (1 Samuel 20:1).

31.  "David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life (soul–nehphesh)" (1 Samuel 23:15).

32.  "Deliver him that smote his brother, that we may kill him for the life (soul–nehphesh) of his brother whom he slew" (2 Samuel 14:7).

33.  "Who today have saved your life (soul–nehphesh) and the lives (souls–nehpheshs of your sons and daughter, the lives (souls–nehpheshs) of your wives, and the lives (souls–nehpheshs) of your concubines" (2 Samuel 19:5).

34.  "Have you asked for the life (soul–nehphesh) of your enemies" (1 Kings 3:11).

35.  "Prolong my life (soul–nehphesh)" (Job 6:11). Not “Prolong the life of an immortal, deathless soul?”

36.  "For himself that he might die, and said, It is enough; now, O Lord, take my life (soul–nehphesh)" (1 Kings 19:4).

37.  "A man that dose violence to the blood of any person (soul–nehphesh) shall flee unto the pit; let no man stay him" (Proverbs 28:17). A person has blood; if there were an immaterial soul it would have no blood.

38.  "Ammon has sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to take your life (soul–nehphesh)...wherefore should he take your life (soul–nehphesh)" (Jeremiah 40:14-15).

39.  "By shedding blood and destroying lives (nehpheshs–living beings)" (Ezekiel 22:27).

40.  “Whatsoever soul (person–life –nehphesh) it be that doest any work in the same day, the same soul (person–life–nehphesh) will I destroy” (Leviticus 23:30). “Destroy" New King James Version. That person (nehphesh)” American Standard Bible.

41.  "And they smote all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there were none left that breathed" (Joshua 11:11).

42.  "He utterly destroyed them and all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein; he left none remaining" (Joshua 10:28).

43.  "And he smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein; he left none remaining in it" (Joshua 10:30).

44.  " And smote it with he edge of the sword, and all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein" (Joshua 10:32).

45.  "And all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein he utterly destroyed that day" (Joshua 10:35).

46.  "But he utterly destroyed it, and all the souls (persons-nephesh) that were therein” (Joshua 10:37).

47.  "And he captured it and its king and all its cities, and they smote them with the edge of the sword, and utterly destroyed all the souls  

(persons–nehpheshs) that were therein” (Joshua 10:39). Can immortal souls be utterly destroyed with a sword?

48.  "That his soul (person–nehphesh) was vexed to death" (Judges 16:16). "Annoyed to death" New American Standard Version. We say, "He worried me to dead."

49.  “Yet thou huntest my soul” (life–nehphesh) (1 Samuel 24:11 King James Version). "You are lying in wait for my soul (life–nehphesh) to take it" New King James Version, American Standard Version.

50.  "To pursue you and to seek your soul (life–nehphesh) (1 Samuel 25:29). Sometimes nehphesh was translated “seek your soul,” and sometimes the same word was translated “seek your life.” See 1-9 below. Did the translators think the Hebrew word nehphesh is a (1) mortal person that both can and will die, (2) or an immortal soul that cannot die?

1. “Which sought your life” (nehphesh) (2 Samuel 4:8).

2. “Seeking my life (nehphesh) (2 Samuel 16:11).

3. “Take away my life (nehphesh) (1. Kings 19:10).

4. “They seek my life, (nehphesh) to take it away” (1 Kings19:14).

5. “Seek after my soul (nehphesh) (Psalm 35:4).

6. “Seek after my life” (nehphesh) (Psalm 38:12).

7. “Seek after my soul (nehphesh) (Psalm 40:14).

8. “Let all those that seek thee” (nehphesh) (Psalm 40:16).

9. “To slay thee (nehphesh) (Jeremiah 40:14).

51.  "The blood of the souls (persons–nehpheshs) of the innocent poor” (Jeremiah 2:34). Dose an immaterial, invisible soul that is in a person have no substance, but it has blood!

52.  "To slay the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that should not die and to save the souls (persons–nehpheshs) alive that should not live" (Ezekiel 13:19). If a soul were something that is immortal and cannot die, this passage is completely nonsense.

53.  “He spared not their soul (nehphesh–life) from death” (Psalms 78:50).

54.  "Like a roaring lion ravening the prey, they have devoured souls (nehpheshs–living beings)" (Ezekiel 22:25).

55.  “The soul (nehphesh–life) of every living thing King James Version (Job 12:10). “In whose hand is the life (nehphesh) of every living thing."

56.  "He did not spare their soul (nehphesh–living being) from death, but gave over their life to the plague, and smote all the firstborn in Egypt” (Psalm 78:50).

57.  "The soul (person–nehphesh) who sins will die" (Ezekiel 18:4).

58.  Ezekiel 18:20

1. "The SOUL (person–nehphesh) that sins, IT SHALL DIE" King James Version.

2. "The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins SHALL DIE" New Revised Standard Version.

3. "The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins WILL DIE" New American Standard Version, and New Revised English Bible.

4. “It is the PERSON (nehphesh) who sins that WILL DIE The Revised English Bible.

5. "The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins is the one who WILL DIE" New Century Version, Holman, and Christian Standard Bible.

6. “It is for a MAN’S (nehphesh) own sins that he WILL DIE” The Living Bible.

7. “The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins will be the one who DIES New Living Translation.

8. “Only THOSE (persons–nehphesh) who sin will be PUT TO DEATH Contemporary English Version.

9. “Only THE ONE (person–nehphesh) who sins SHALL DIE The New American Bible, and Today's New International Version.

10. “The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins WILL DIE God Word Translation.

11. “PEOPLE (nehphesh) WILL DIE because of their own sins” New International Reader's Version.

     Ezekiel 18:20 is a person dying (being put to death) for a sin under the Old Testament Law, but by those who believe there is a soul that will not die when the person it was in dies this passage is almost always changed to be referring to something that cannot die. When this is changed and misapply as it often is, to some immaterial something that is believed to be in a person, this is an undeniable statement that the immortal something that they say cannot die will die, that if there were a soul it would not have everlasting life being endlessly tormented by God. This is definitely not what the translators wanted, but what they made in their attempt to make there be a soul that is immortal. If "soul" means "an immortal something that cannot die," then James 5:20 say, "Shall save from death an immortal something that cannot die." This man made theology makes nonsense of the Bible. 

     The divine sentence, "The soul that sins, it shall die" (Ezekiel 18:20) has been revised to say, "The soul that sins, it shall live being eternally tormented by God." Not only must "die" be changed to "eternal life" but after making the change, then torment, which is not in Ezekiel 18:20 must be added to it; changed to “a soul that sins, it shall live forever being endlessly tormented by God.” To make it teach what many want it to teach, (1) God's word must be changed, (2) and then added to.

     “Shall die” in Ezekiel 18:4 is in contrast to “shall surely live” in Ezekiel 18:9. It is life or death of a living person under the Law that is being spoken of, not two kinds of life after death; if death is only a separation of soul and body as many teach, what is the death of a soul; how can a soul that is alive but separated from God be dead?

      In over 320, over one-third of the about 870 times that nehphesh, the Hebrew word that is translated or mistranslated soul, it is used of souls,

1. Of souls (nehphesh) that are already dead.

2. Of souls (nehphesh) that can die, and can be killed.

3. Of souls (nehphesh) that can be buried.

4. Of souls (nehphesh) that can be sought to be killed.

5. Of souls (nehphesh) that can be murdered.

6. Of souls (nehphesh) that can be delivered from death.

7. Of souls (nehphesh) that can be smote (killed).

8. Of souls (nehphesh) that can be affected.

9. Of souls (nehphesh) that can be cut off.

     In most of these passages the translators of the King James and other translations have hidden from the readers that the very thing they believe to be immortal and cannot die, they have hid that a nehphesh - a living being can and does die; hidden from you that a nehphesh is already dead. By picking when they translated nehphesh into soul and picking when to translate "nehphesh" into "life," "person" and many other words. Can such hiding have been anything more then a deliberate deceiving because they wanted to teach Plato’s Greek philosophy of a deathless souls in place of the resurrection of dead persons? But even in the King James Version there are many passages which says that nehpheshs (souls) can and do die, or nehpheshs (souls) are already dead.

     Nehphesh (often mistranslated into the pagan Greek deathless, no substance “soul”) is a physical person or animal, whether the person or animal is living or dead.  


     1. "We feared greatly for our soul (nehphesh–life, living being) because of you” (Joshua 9:24).  They feared for their life, not for a deathless being that was in them being killed by a person.

     2. "All the men who were seeking your soul (nehphesh–life) are dead” (Exodus 4:19). All those that wanted to kill him are dead, not kill a soul.

 “Saul had come out to seek his life (nehphesh–life, living being) while David was in the wilderness” (1 Samuel 23:15).

     3. They had to flee to save their souls (nehpheshs–lives, living beings) (2 King 7:7), their lives (nehphesh–living being) would be utterly destroyed "with the edge of the sword" or other weapons (Joshua 10:27; 10:30; 10:32; 10:35, 10:37; 10:39).

     4. “And deliver our lives (nehpheshs–living beings) from death” (Joshua 2:13).


     Not only could souls (nehpheshs–living beings) be killed by their enemies, but souls (nehpheshs–living beings) could also die for lack of food (Lamentations 1:11; Numbers 11:6).


     Leviticus 7:18; 7:20; 7:25; 7:27; also, Genesis 9:4; 9:5; 12:13; 17:14; 19:17; 19:19; 19:20; 32:30; 32:31; 35:18; 37:21; Exodus 21:23; 30:12; 30:15; 31:14; Leviticus 7:21; 17:11; 17:12; 17:14; 19:8; 21:1; 21:11; 22:3; 24:17; 24:18; Numbers 5:2; 6:6; 9:6; 9:7; 9:10; 9:18; 19:11; 19:13; 19:20; 23:10; 31:19; 35:11; 35:15; 35:30; 35:31; Deuteronomy 12:23; Joshua 11:11; 20:3; 20:9; Judges 5:28; 12:3; 16:16; 18:25; Ruth 4:15; 1 Samuel 1:19; 1:20; 1:23; 23:15; 23:20; 25:29; 28:9; 28:21; 2 Samuel 4:8; 14:7; 16:11; 19:5; 19:6; 1 Kings 1:12; 1:29; 3:11; 17:21; 17:22; 19:10; 19:14; 20:32; 2 Kings 1:13; 19:24; 1 Chronicles 11:19; 2 Chronicles 11:11; Esther 7:7; Job 13:14; 30:16; 33:18; 33:22; 36:14; Psalm 7:2; 17:13; 22:20; 22:21; 22:29; 22:30; 31:13; 33:19; 35:4; 35:17; 38:12; 38:13; 70:2; 70:3; 71:10; Proverbs 1:19; 7:23; 12:10; 13:3; 23:14; Isaiah 10:18; 43:4; Jeremiah 2:34; 4:30; 34:20-21; 38:2; 38:16; 39:18; 40:15; 44:30; 45:5; 49:37; Ezekiel 17:17; 18:4; 18:20; 18:27; 22:25; 22:27; Jonah 4:3; 4:6.

     Summary - The "nehphesh (soul in King James Version)" of the Old Testament is an earthly being, man, animal, or sea creature; nehphesh can be either living or dead persons or animals. The nehphesh can die, it can be dead, and it can be killed.

     According to the King James Version

1. Souls can be sought to kill                            11. Souls can drink water

2. Souls can be smote                                        12. Souls can desire

3. Souls can die from a lack of food or water   13. Souls can be discontented

4. Souls can be cut off                                       14. Souls can be grieved

5. Souls can be murdered                                  15. Souls can be bound with a bond

6. Souls can be delivered from death                16. Souls can be affected

7. Souls can be born                                          17. Souls loathes

8. Souls can live                                                18. Souls can lust

9. Souls can sorrow                                           19. Souls can have anguish

10. Souls can eat                                                20. etc.

     Not one of the about 870 times that nehphesh is used it does not have reference to an invisible, immaterial something in a person that has no substance and cannot die. Nehphesh in the Old Testament and psukee in the New Testament are together used about 967 times with over one-third being associated with the death of a soul (person or animal). Some (nehpheshs–souls) are dead. Some souls are dying. Some souls are in fear of death. Some souls have persons that are trying to kill them. Some souls are saved from death, etc. On the other hand, in the 976 times soul is used, not one time is a soul (nehphesh) said to be deathless or immortal.

     In about thirty-two passages souls (nehpheshs) are spoken of as being killed by man. “And he that kills any man (nehphesh) shall surely be put to death. And he that kills a beast (nehphesh) shall make it good; beast (nehphesh) for beast (nehphesh)” (Leviticus 24:17-18). In this passage hehphesh is used four times in the Hebrew, but because of the bias of the translators not one time is nehphesh translated soul in the King James Version. They translated nehphesh into both man and beast to deliberately hide from their readers that animals are souls (nehpheshs) just the same as men, to hide that both are living beings that can and do die, (see Joshua 10:28; 10:30; 10:32; 10:35; 10:37; 10:39; Deuteronomy 27:25; Leviticus 24:17-18).



As it is in the Hebrew

“And he that kills any NEHPHESH shall surely be put to death. And he that kills a NEHPHESH shall make it good; NEHPHESH for NEHPHESH.

As nehphesh is translated in the King James Version

“And he that kills any MAN shall surely be put to death. And he that kills a BEAST shall make it good; BEAST for BEAST.”

As nehphesh is translated in the New American Standard Bible

“And if a man takes the LIFE (nehphesh) of any human being, he shall surely be put to death. And the one who takes the LIFE (nehphesh) of an animal shall make it good, LIFE (nehphesh) for LIFE (nehphesh).

As nehphesh is translated the New International Version, 2011 update.

“Anyone who takes the LIFE of a human being is to be put to death. Anyone who takes the LIFE of someone’s animal must make restitution—LIFE for LIFE.”

     In about thirteen passages souls (nehpheshs) of men are said to be actually dead (see Numbers 6:6; Leviticus 21:11). In many of these passages, the King James Version and others translated nehphesh as life or body; and they made it so that the English reader cannot see that animals are “souls” (are living beings), and that man kills “souls” (nehpheshs) of both men and animals, and sometimes “souls” (nehpheshs) are actually dead. Under the Law anyone that touched a dead body (a dead nehphesh) was unclean. “Dead body” (nehphesh) (Leviticus 21:11, and Numbers 6:6). Corpses are dead souls, and anyone (any living souls-persons- a living nehpheshs) who came in contact with a dead soul (corpses, dead body-a dead nehphesh) was unclean.

     This clearly shows that the meaning of the Hebrew word nehphesh is (1) something that is not immortal; (2) that it is something that it can die: (3) or that it can be already dead; (4) that it is something that it can be touched when it is dead. There is no other word in the Bible that could be translated into Plato's immortal soul; therefore, the translators had to use this word and hide, the best they could, the fact that a nehphesh can and does die.

     Of the hundreds of times Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament only five are used in the same passage as sheol. Of these five in the Kings James Version sheol is translated Hell three times (Psalm 16:10; 86:13; Proverbs 23:14). The other two they had to translate it grave (Psalm 30:3; 89:48). Did they think “Hell” and “grave” are the same thing?

     In most translations nehphesh is sometimes translated to be immortal, sometime as mortal, often in the same passages. How could it be known when the same word even when it is in the same passage when it is something that is mortal and when it is something that is immortal? The only answer is that the translators were trying to put the Greek immortal soul that Plato believed in into the Bible by mistranslating when they could, but many times found nehphesh would not make sense if they had translated it (changed it) into something immortal and deathless.


The Companion Bible, Appendix 13 says nehphesh (life–soul) is used

1. Of the lower animals (nehpheshs–souls) in 22 passages.

2. Of the lower animals and man (nehpheshs–souls) in 7 passages.

3. Of man (nehphesh–soul) as an individual person in 53 passages.

4. Of man (nehphesh–soul) as exercising certain powers or performing certain acts in 96 passages.

5. Of man (nehphesh–soul) as possessing animal appetites and desires in 92 passages.

6. Of man (nehphesh–soul) as exercising mental faculties and manifesting certain feelings, affection and passions in 231 passages.

7. Of man (nehphesh–soul) being cut off by God and as being killed or slain by man in 54 passages.

8.   Of man (nehphesh–soul) as being mortal, subject to death of various kinds, from which he can be saved and delivered and his life prolonged in 243 passages.

9. Of man (nehphesh–soul) as actually dead in 13 passages.


     Just one of the many examples of the absurdity of the translations of nehphesh in the King James Version with the meaning of "soul" as it is used today, an invisible something that is in a person that no one has ever seen this immortal something that cannot be seen. "For mine enemies speak against me; and they that lay wait for my soul (nehphesh) take counsel together" (Psalm 71:10). How could anyone lay in wait (ambush) for an undying invisible something that is now in a person that no one can see; how could anyone kill something that cannot die even if they could see it?

     1. "Deliver my soul" (nehphesh, Psalm 17:13) in today's English it would be "Save my life" (nehphesh).

     2. "They also that seek after my life(soul–nehphesh, Psalm 38:12). “That seeks after my soul" (nehphesh, Psalm 40:14). Both soul and life are from the same word (nehphesh). Why were the translators so inconsistent; life and soul, according to the theology they believed, are two completely different things, yet they translated both from the same Hebrew word many times. 

     3. "They smote all the souls (nehpheshs)" (Joshua 11:11). In today's English it would be, "They killed all the people." "Whosoever kills any person(soul–nehphesh, Joshua 20:9). Again, both soul and person are translated from the same Hebrew word; they could smite (kill) all the persons, but to smite (kill) all the deathless souls would be completely impossible, but the King James Version says they did the impossible.

     4. "They that lay wait for my soul" (nehphesh) in today's English it would be, "They that are waiting in ambush for my life" (Psalm 70:10).

     Many more times "soul" (nehphesh) would only make sense if translated "life." To apply today's meaning, "An undying invisible something that is now in a person" makes many passages be total nonsense. Today's meaning of "soul" is very different from the meaning of nehphesh in Biblical times, which makes "soul" be a mistranslation every time they changed nehphesh to soul. When anyone reads the Bible, and reads "soul," and knows only what the word "soul" means today, they cannot understand what God said. Many English translations use "soul" and "person" interchangeable. The Revised Standard used "person" frequently where the King James used "soul." The problem is that most English readers would not know that when the translators said a "person" died, that the translators are hiding the fact that in many places “person” (nehphesh) that cannot keep from dying is the same word that they translated “soul,” something that they believed cannot die. Why did some translators do this? Was it because they believed an immortal "soul" cannot die, but a person cannot keep from dying? If a “soul” (nehphesh) dies, it would not be immortal; therefore, they were forced to use “person” or "life" in many places to hide the fact from you that a nehphesh both can die and dose die. The truth is that they were trying to put the Dark  Age Roman Catholic doctrine of "soul" in the Bible despite the fact that it is not there. If they had been consistent in translating, they would not have been able to add the doctrine of an undying soul in the Bible.

     "The Lord of hosts has sworn by Himself (soul–nehphesh)" (Jeremiah 51:14). By His own being or person. God "could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself (psukee–soul)" (Hebrews 6:13). Not even the King James translators wanted God to have an invisible something in Him that would live after He was dead. God's nehphesh and man's nehphesh are their being, person, not an invisible something that is not a person and is not God.

     All the Old Testament words, which are translated life, spirit, breath, or soul, are all used referring to both persons and animals. Every word that is used to prove a person has an immortal soul or an immortal spirit would also prove all breathing creatures have an immortal soul or an immortal spirit if they proved a person does.


     NEHPHESH-SOULLIFELIVING BEING is used to describe all living beings.

1. Animal, birds, reptiles, and insects have this same nehphesh (soul–life) that a person has. Sea creatures, birds (Genesis 1:20), every living creature that moves in water or on land are living souls (Genesis 1:21). Every beast, bird, and insect are a nehphesh, are a living being.

2. "Man became a living being" (Genesis 2:7). See Genesis 2:19; 9:4; 9:10; 9:12; 9:15-16.


     NSHAHMAH is used 24 times in the Old Testament. Not one of the 24 says anything about anything that is immortal.

Nshahmah as it is translated in the New International Version.

1. Genesis 2:7,  “Breathed into his nostrils the breath (nshahmah) of life.

2. Genesis 7:22, “Everything on dry land that had the breath of life (nshahmah) in its nostrils died.”

3. Deuteronomy 20:16, “Do not leave alive anything that breathes (nshahmah).”

4. Joshua 10:40, “He totally destroyed all who breathed (nshahmah).”

5. Joshua 11:11, “They totally destroyed them, not sparing anything that breathed (nshahmah).”

6. Joshua 11:14, “But all the people they put to the sword until they completely destroyed them, not sparing anyone that breathed (nshahmah).”

7.  2 Samuel 22:16, “At the blast of breath (nshahmah) from his nostrils.”

8. 1 Kings 15:29 “He did not leave Jeroboam anyone that breathed (nshahmah), but destroyed them all.”

9. 1 Kings 17:17, “He grew worse and worse, and finally stopped breathing (nshahmah).”

10. Job 4:9, (Hebrew dualism in Job–the same thing said in two different ways).

“At the breath (ruach) of God they are destroyed:

At the blast (nshahmah) of his anger they perish.”

11. Job 26:

“Who has helped you utter these words?

And whose spirit (nshahmah) spoke from your mouth?”

12. Job 27:3 

“As long as I have life (ruach) within me, 

The breath (nshahmah) of God in my nostrils.”

13. Job 32:8 

“But it is the spirit (ruach) in a man,

The breath (nshahmah) of the Almighty.”

14. Job 33:4 

“The Spirit (ruach) of God made me; 

 The breath (nshahmah) of the Almighty gives me life.”

15. Job 34:14-15 “If it was his intention and he withdrew his spirit (ruach) and breath” (nshahmah).

“All mankind would perish together,

And man would return to the dust.”

16. Job 37:10 

“The tempest comes out from its chamber, the cold from the driving winds.

The breath (nshahmah) of God produces ice, and the broad waters become frozen.”

17. Psalm 18:15, “O Lord, at the blast of breath (nshahmah) from your nostrils.”

18. Psalm 150:6, “Let everything that has breath (nshahmah) praise the Lord.”

19. Proverbs 20:27, “The lamp of the Lord searches the spirit (nshahmah) of a man; it searches out his inmost being.”

20. Isaiah 2:22, “Stop trusting in man, who has but a breath (nshahmah) in his nostrils.”

21.Isaiah 30:33, “The breath (nshahmah) of the Lord, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze.”

22. Isaiah 42:5, “Who gives breath (nshahmah) to its people, and life to those who walk on it.”

23. Isaiah 57:16, “The breath (nshahmah) of man that I have created.” “Spirit of man” in King James Version.

24. Daniel 10:17, “My strength is gone and I can hardly breathe (nshahmah).”

Of the twenty-four times nshahmah is in the Hebrew, it is translated soul only one time in the King James Version, (Isaiah 57:16); none in New American Standard Version, New International Version, and most other translations. Nahahmah is the breath of life that comes from God in both mankind and animals; it is not an immortal soul.

     Nshahmah is used to describe all living being/breath of life; all living things that breathes

     (1) Nshahmah used to describe man, "Breathed into his nostrils the BREATH of life" (Genesis 2:7; 1 Kings 17:17; Job 27:3).

     (2) Nshahmah used to describe man and animals; both man and animals have the same nshahmah (breath of life–spirit).

     1. “All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (nshahmah) of the spirit of life, of all that was on the dry land, died" (Genesis 7:22). All living being, man, and animals died.

     2. "But of the cities of these peoples, that Jehovah your God gives you for an inheritance, you shall save alive nothing that BREATHS (nshahmah)" (Deuteronomy 20:16). All living being, both man and animals that breathed.

     3. "So Joshua smote all the land, the hill-country, and the South, and the lowland, and the slopes, and all their kings, he left none remaining, but he utterly destroyed all that BREATHED (nshahmah)" (Joshua 10:40). All living being, both man and animals that had life, all that breathed (nshahmah) were killed.

     4. "And they smote all the souls (nshpheshs) that were therein with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there were none left that BREATHED (nshahmah)" (Joshua 11:11). All living being, both man and animals that breathed, all nshahmah were killed.

     5. Also Joshua 11:14; 1 Kings 15:29; Job 34:14; Psalm 150:6.    

 (3) Ruach

Ruachspiritbreath, is used of,

1.  God (Exodus 15:8; 2 Samuel 22:16; Isaiah 4:4)

2.  Spirit of the Lord (Zephaniah 4:6)

3.  Heavenly being (Psalm 104:4)

4, All flesh, birds, cattle, beasts, and every creeping thing–all have the

 same spirit (ruach - breath) as man (Genesis 7:22)

5.  Man and beasts, "I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to

destroy all flesh in which is the BREATH (ruach) of life, from under

heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish" (Genesis 6:17). Also

Ecclesiastes 3:19

6.  Man (Ecclesiastes 12:5-7; Psalm 104:29 - see Genesis 6:17; 7:15; 54:27;

Job 4:9). It is not unto the sixth chapter of Genesis that “ruach” is first used

referring to mankind (Genesis 6:17), and then is translated “breath of

life.” When the ruach (breath of life) leaves the body of both man and

beasts, both are dead, (Psalm 104:29-30).

Both ruach and nshahmah have very near if not the same meaning. 

All in whose nostrils was the breath (nshahmah) of the spirit of life, died” (Genesis 7:22)

"To destroy all flesh in which is the breath (ruach) of life" (Genesis 6:17).

Both ruach and nshahmah are used in Hebrew dualism in Job three times as two ways of saying the same thing (Job 4:9; 27:3; 32:8).

1.   Job 4:9

a. “By the breath (ruach) of God they perish,

b. And by the blast (nshahmah) of His anger they come to an end”

2.   Job 27:3

a. “All the while my breath (nshahmah) is in me,

b. And the spiri(ruach) of God is in my nostrils.”

3.   Job 32:8

a. “But it is a spirit (ruach) in man, 

b.  And the breath (nshahmah) of the Almighty gives them understanding.”

     The above is an example of the many times ruach and nshahmah seem to be used interchangeable; they are both the breath, both are the life of a living being, life of both man and beast. Nshahmah is limited to the air or breath of the mouth of any breathing being; ruach also means any breathing being, but has a much broader use in that it is also used of wind and any air movement. Neither the breath (nshahmah) of a person, or the breath (ruach) of a person is not an immortal entity added to the person that has life in itself apart from the life of the person any more then the breath (nshahmah) of God, or the breath (ruach) of God is not an entity that has life in itself apart from God.

     RUACH IS TRANSLATED SIXTEEN DIFFERENT WAYS IN THE KING JAMES VERSION. Of about 389 times ruach is used in the Old Testament it is translated wind about 90 times, breath 28 times, blast 4 times, air, windy, tempest, whirlwind, and tempest. Both ruach and nshahmah are basically translated with the same words, both have something to do with the breath or air without which there would be no life; in Genesis 2:7 it was when God breathed into Adam’s nostrils the breath of life (nshahmah) that Adam became a living being. Nshahmah is clearly the breath that gives life to Adam, not another living being that was put in Adam.

     There is no suggestion in any one of the many times ruach is used referring both to mankind and to animals that ruach is an immaterial, immortal something that has it’s own life and will live after the death of the person or animal that it had been in.

(1) Ruach translated BREATH of man and beast (ruach–spirit).

*  “All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (ruach) of life” (Genesis 6:17; 7:15).

*  "By the BREATH (ruach) of his mouth" (Genesis 6:17; Psalm 104:29; Job 15:30).

*  "By the BREATH (ruach) of his mouth" (Job 15:30).

*  "All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (ruach) of life" (Genesis 7:22).

*  "To destroy all flesh in which is the BREATH (ruach) of life” (Genesis 6:17).

*  "So they went into the ark to Noah, by twos of all flesh in which was the BREATH (ruach) of life" (Genesis 7:15).

*  "No BREATH (ruach) in them" (Jeremiah 10:14). Why not, "No SPIRIT (ruach) in them" or "Takes away their SPIRIT (ruach)" (Psalm 104:29)? How did the translators know when the same word was wind, breath, spirit, blast, air, mind, courage, cool, or anger? In English the meaning of some of these words are not even close to being the same; how are those who read their translation to know that these are all translated from the same word in the Hebrew? Idols are described as not having breath (ruach) (Habakkuk 2:19) which means idols have no life just as a person without breath (ruach) has no life.

*  "Every goldsmith...his molten images are deceitful, and there is no BRATH (ruach) in them" (Jeremiah 51:17).

*  "Takes away their BREATH (ruach), they expire, and return to their dust" (Psalm 104:29).

*  “There is no advantage for man over beast” (Ecclesiastes 3:19).

(2) Ruach translated WIND (ruach)

*   "God made a WIND (ruach) to pass over" (Genesis 8:1).

*   "Like the chaff, which the WIND (ruach) drives" (Psalm 1:4).

*   "You did blow with your WIND (ruach)" (Exodus 15:10).

*   "Clouds and WIND (ruach) without rain" (Proverbs 25:14).

*   "My escape from the WINDY (ruach) storm" (Psalm 55:8).

*   "A destroying WIND (ruach)" (Jeremiah 51:1).

*   "A strong WIND (ruach)" (Job 8:2).

*   "You shall scatter in the WIND (ruach)" (Ezekiel 5:2).

*   "An east WIND (ruach)" (Exodus 10:13).

*   "A mighty strong west WIND (ruach)" (Exodus 10:19).

*   Also Psalm 1:4 and Exodus 15:10.

 (3) Ruach translated BLAST “And at the BLAST (ruach)" of Thy (God’s) nostrils (a blast of air) the waters were piled up” (Exodus 15:8). Also 2 Samuel 22:6.

(4) Ruach translated WINDY “My escape from the WINDY (ruach) storm  (Psalm 55:8).

(5) Ruach translated WHIRLWIND “A WHIRLWIND (ruach) came out of the north" (Ezekiel 1:4).

(6) Ruach translated TEMPEST “An horrible TEMPEST (ruach)" (Psalm 11:6).

(7) Ruach translated AIR "That no AIR (ruach) can come between them" (Job 41:16; 41:8).

(8) Ruach translated MIND "A grief of MIND (ruach)” (Genesis 26:35; Proverbs 29:11).

(9) Ruach translated COURAGE "Neither did there remain any more COURAGE (ruach) in them" (Joshua 5:1).

(10) Ruach translated COOL "Walking in the garden in the COOL (ruach) of the day" (Genesis 3:8).

(11) Ruach translated ANGER "Their ANGER (ruach) was abated" (Judges 8:3).

(12) Ruach translated SIDE (Jeremiah 52:23; Ezekiel 42:16; 42:17; 42:18; 42:19; “side wind” in footnote).

(13) Ruach translated QUARTERS (ruach) (1 Chronicles 9:24).

(14) Ruach translated SPIRITUAL (ruach) (Hosea 9:7).

(15) Ruach translated VAIN (ruach)  (Job 15:2; 16:3).     

(16) Ruach translated SPIRIT (ruach) (Job 27:3).

     An example of how other translations differ on the sixteen different ways (above) ruach is translated in the King James Version.

                 |  King     |New          | New Revised | The       |

                 |  James    |International| Standard    | Living    |

                 |  Version  |Version      | Version     | Bible     |

1 Genesis 6:17   | breath    | breath      | breath      | breath    |   

2 Genesis 8:1    | wind      | wind        | wind        | wind      |

3 Psalm 55:8     | windy     | tempest     | raging wind | storm     |

4 Ezekiel 1:4    | whirlwind | windstorm   | stormy wind | storm     |

5 Psalm 11:6     | tempest   | wind        | wind        | wind      |

6 2 Samuel 22:16 | blast     | blast       | blast       | blast     |

7 Job 41:16      | air       | air         | air         | air       |

8 Genesis 26:35  | mind      | grief       | better life | bitter    |

9 Joshua 5:1     | courage   | courage     | spirit      | courage   |

10 Genesis 3:8   | cool      | cool        | cool        |           |

11 Judge 8:3     | anger     | resentment  | anger       |calmed down|

12 Jeremiah 52:23| side      | side        | side        | side      |

13 1 Chron. 9:24 | quarters  | side        | side        | side      |

14 Hosea 9:7     | spiritual | inspired    | spirit      | inspired  |

15 Job 15:2      | vain      | winded      | windy       | windbag   |

16 Job 27:3      | spirit    | east wind   | breath      | breath    |

     Why was the same word translated “By the BREATH (ruach) of his mouth” (Job 15:30), and then translated “And the SPIRIT (ruach) of God in my nostrils” (Job 27:3)? Many of the sixteen different ways ruach is translated have nothing in common; the sixteen different translations of the same word by the King James Version are not even close to being the same; yet they are the same word in the Hebrew. There is no way that ruach could have sixteen total different meaning.

     Were they saying God has an “immaterial invisible” (E. W. Vine) something in Him that can exist after His death, as we are told that mankind has? There is no possible way that the translators could have known.

     1.  When (ruach) was breath of any mortal being.

     2.  Or known when the same word should be changed to be an immortal, deathless something that does not breathe air. 

     The two meaning are nothing alike. “You take away their breath (ruach), they die, and return to their dust. You send forth your spirit  (ruach  breath), they are created, and you renew the face of the earth” (Psalm 104:29-30).

     1.  When God take away ruach (breath) they die.

     2.  When God sends ruach (breath), they live.

     The spirit as it is used today cannot die; therefore, this word (ruach) could not be translated spirit, but when the earth is renewed by new life, the translators changed this new life from breath to spirit (ruach).

     AMPLIFIED BIBLE, “When You hide Your face, they are troubled and dismayed; when You take away their breath (ruach), they die and return to their dust. When You send forth Your Spirit and give them breath (ruach), they are created, and You replenish the face of the ground” (Psalm 104:29-30).

     COMMON ENGLISH BIBLE, “But when you hide your face, they are terrified; when you take away their breath (ruach), they die and return to dust. When you let loose your breath (ruach), they are created, and you make the surface of the ground brand-new again” (Psalm 104:29-30).

      NEW CENTURY VERSION, “When you turn away from them, they become frightened. When you take away their breath (ruach), they die and turn to dust. When you breathe (ruach) on them, they are created, and you make the land new again” (Psalm 104:29-30).

      HOLMAN CHRISTIAN STANDARD BIBLE, “When You hide Your face, they are terrified; when You take away their breath (ruach), they die and return to the dust. When You send Your breath (ruach), they are created, and You renew the face of the earth” (Psalm 104:29-30).

     Does the number of times “ruach” is translated “spirit” in the difference translations show the scholars that translated them were easing away from the King James Version?

“Spirit” 236 times in King James Version

“Spirit” 221 times in New American Standard Bible

“Spirit” 193 times in New International Version

“Spirit” 167 times in New Living Translation

“Spirit” 131 times in The Message

 “Spirit” 79 times in Contemporary English Version

*  “And the SPIRIT (ruach) of God in my nostrils” (Job 27:3)

*  "SPIRIT (ruach) of God" (Genesis 1:2)

*  "And the SPIRIT (ruach) shall return unto God” (Ecclesiastes 12:7)

*  "And the SPIRIT (ruach) of the beast that goes downward” (Ecclesiastes 3:21)

     SPIRIT (ruach) in passages that has reference to attitude, behavior, thinking, disposition, mood, or temperament. As “A happy disposition,” “good attitude” or “bad mood.” None of these passages are speaking of an immortal, no substance something that has it own life that it will live after the person it had been in is dead; the teaching of the Greeks and of Plato says a soul will live without a resurrection freed from the dead person it had been trapped in.

*  "A lying SPIRIT (ruach)" (1 Kings 22:23)

*  "The SPIRIT (ruach) of jealousy came" (Genesis 1:2; 41:8, Numbers 5:14; 5:30)

*   “The SPIRIT (ruach) of heaviness” (Isaiah 61:3)

*  "Because he had another SPIRIT (ruach)" (Numbers 14:24)

*  "The SPIRIT (ruach) entered into me" (Ezekiel 2:2; 3:24)

*  “Neither was there SPIRIT (ruach) in them” (Joshua 5:1). No soul in them?

*  "And a new SPIRIT (ruach) will I put within you" (Ezekiel 36:26). A new soul put in them?

*  "God hardened his SPIRIT (ruach)" (Deuteronomy 2:30)

*  "Anguish of SPIRIT (ruach)" (Exodus 6:9)

*  "SPIRIT (ruach) of wisdom" (Exodus 28:3)

*  "Joshua...was filled with the SPIRIT (ruach) of wisdom” (Deuteronomy 34:9)

     W. E. Vine, “Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary,” pages 240–241 gives nine ways spirit–ruach is used in the Old Testament.

1.  First: this word means “breath.”

2.  Second: this word can be used with emphasis on the invisible, intangible, fleeting quality of air.

3.  Third: ruach can mean, “wind.”

4.  Fourth: the wind represents direction.

5.  Fifth: ruach frequently represents the element of life in a man, his natural “spirit”, “And all flesh died that moved upon the earth…All in whose nostrils was the breath of life.” (Gen. 7:21–22). In these verses the animals have “spirit” (cf. Ps. 104:29).

6.  Sixth: ruach is often used of

     *  A man’s mindset, disposition, or “temper”, ’Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity, and in whose spirit (ruach) there is no guile’ (Ps. 32:2). In Ezek. 13:3 the word is used of one’s mind or thinking, ‘Woe unto the foolish prophets, that follow their own spirit (ruach), and have seen nothing’” (cf. Prov. 29:11). 

     *  Ruach can represent particular dispositions, as it does in Josh. 2:11, “And as soon as we had heard this things, our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage (ruach–spirit in King James Version) in any man, because of you…” (cf. Josh. 5:1; Job 15:12).

     *  Another disposition represented by this word is “temper”, “If the spirit (temper) of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place…” (Eccl. 10:4). David prayed that God would “restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with the free Spirit” (Ps. 51:12). In this verse “joy of salvation” and “free Spirit” are parallel and; therefore, synonymous terms. Therefore, “spirit” refers to one’s inner disposition, just as “joy” refers to an inner emotion.

7.   Seventh: the Bible often speaks of God’s “Spirit.”

8.   Eighth: angels in heaven are sometimes called “spirits.”

9.   Nine: the “spirit” may also be used of that which enables a man to do a particular job of that which represents the essence of a quality of man.

Just as in the New Testament, when spirit is used in reference to a person, it is the disposition of the persons mind or thinking. 

     Why did the translators translate the word "ruach" into "spirit" in one place, and "blast" or "wind" in others? The meaning of "spirit" as it was used in 1611 and as it is used today, an immortality no substance something in a person is not a thirty-first cousin to “wind” or “breath,” etc., yet the translators, at will, changed the same word into many words, into many things that have meaning that are worlds apart.

     Does the same word have many completely different meanings? (1) One meaning that had reference to the mortal person or animal? (2) And another meaning of the same word that would have had reference to an immortal living being that is in a person unto the death of the person that animals do not have?

     “Ruach,” is it mortal or immortal? If ruach is a immortal something that is in a person, then how could ruach also be something that is in both a person and in an animal that is mortal? Then how could the Hebrew people know when it was speaking of a mortal person or a mortal animal that cannot keep from dying, or when it was actual speaking of something in a person that is immortal and cannot die; how could they know that when the same word was speaking of an animal that it was speaking of something in the animal that was not immortal? How could the translators know? They could not; the translators had to put their theology of man into the Bible, even if they could not be consistent. How could anyone read the Kings James Version and know that anger, cool, courage, air, mind, breath, wind, blast, and spirit are all the same thing? Most English reader today would not know that “wind” and "spirit" are both indiscriminately translated from the same word, and that almost without exception today's reader would understand "spirit" to be an immortal soul, but would never understand "wind" to be an immortal soul. Those who do not read Hebrew are deliberately misled by such indiscriminately translations.

     Summary - Nehphesh, nshahmah, and ruach are something that both a person and an animal have in common, and all three are something that can and does die. Both an animal and a man are a soul-a living being of this earth. Animals or people do not have a soul, do not have a pagan immortal something imprisoned in them that cannot die, something that when is freed it will live after the death of the animal or person it was in.

     How nehphesh and psukee are translated in seven different versions.

           |   K.J.V.    |   N.K.J.V.  |   N.A.S.V.  |   R.S.V.   |

Gen. 1:20  | creatures   | creatures   | creatures   | creatures   |

Gen. 2:7   | soul        | living being| living being| living being|

Gen. 9:5   | life        | life        | life        | life        |

Mt 16:25-26|life & soul  | life & soul | life & soul | life 4 times|

Acts 3:23  | soul        | soul        | soul        | soul        |

1 Cor15:45 | soul        | living being| soul        | living being|

1 Pet 3:20 | souls       | soul        | persons     | persons     |

Rev. 16:3  | soul        | creature    | living thing| living thing|


           |   N.R.S.V.  |  N.I.V.      |Robert Young|